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An Elderly Iranian Man with Alzheimer’s Disease

An Elderly Iranian Man with Alzheimer’s Disease

An Elderly Iranian Man with Alzheimer’s Disease

Sample Paper Introduction: Dementia is a progressive neurological brain disease that affects the quality of life of those diagnosed (Tjia et al., 2017). The diagnosis of dementia affects the patient and the caregiver in different ways: those diagnosed with dementia may have difficulty in thinking, memory and physical or psychological skills. Those diagnosed with dementia may experience behavior and psychological symptoms of dementia. Behavioral symptoms can be heterogeneous and unpredictable, which can be difficult for caregivers to manage. In this paper, I will examine the given case study: An Elderly Iranian Man with Alzheimer’s disease, then I will make three medication decisions. Decision Point One: Decision number one: Begin Aricept (donepezil) 5 mg orally at BEDTIME. Cholinesterase inhibitors, for example, donepezil, have shown benefit in cognition and function for patients with mild to moderate dementia. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) address the effect of donepezil on mild cognitive impairment. Analysis of the treatment effects at 6-month intervals showed a decreased probability of progression of dementia in the donepezil group during the first 12 months of the study (Howard, 2012)

NURS 6521 Case Study: An Elderly Iranian Man with Alzheimer’s Disease Decision Tree Assignment

Case Study: An Elderly Iranian Man with Alzheimer’s Disease SAMPLE INTRO

Most elderly people in the United States and across the world suffer from Alzheimer’s condition. According to several studies, Alzheimer’s as a neurodegenerative condition, which starts slowly and then degenerates over a sustained period. Epidemiological data regarding the condition reveals that this disease affects over 70 per cent of elderly people with dementia in the world. The most revealing symptomology of the condition involves the presence of memory lapse concerning latest events in a patient’s life. As the condition advances, additional symptoms including mood swings, behavioral issues, language difficulties, disorientation, and the absence of self-care management begin to manifest. Gradually, the body will lose all of its vital functions, a phenomenon that will eventually culminate into death. Houmani and his colleagues (2018) assert that the lifespan of the disease varies from one patient to another yet the expectancy does not exceed nine years post-diagnosis.  More fundamentally, Alzheimer’s condition lacks a cure and the only available respite is to manage it so as to make certain that a patient enjoys an improved quality of life before their eventual demise.

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In the present case study, an Iranian man whose son charges that he displays strange behaviors will be examined and pharmacologically treated by the present nurse practitioner. According to the patient interview, Mr. Akadi displayed a loss of interest in things that were initially dear to him. Moreover, the patient has become forgetful in the recent past and confabulation was noticeable from his mental health testing procedure. Additional symptoms evident from the diagnostic process include impaired judgment and impulse as well as restricted affect. According to a mini-mental status examination that was conducted, the patient also suffers from a major neurocognitive disorder. The nurse suspected that the condition may have been caused by presumptive Alzheimer. Therefore, the present paper will seek to elucidate the assessment outcomes and create a pharmacological treatment therapy based on informed standard procedures. According to studies, while the condition is essentially untreatable, it can be managed pharmacologically. The pharmacological management is, however, influenced by factors such as dosage, proper selection of drugs, and time of use and administration route. Importantly, it is important for the nurse practitioner to monitor the responsiveness of a patient to drugs and their dosages and make fundamental adjustments after periodic assessment.

Decision Point 1

Selected Decision

Decision point one presented the nurse practitioner with three important options. The first option was to start the patient on Razadyne (galantamien) 4 mg daily. The second option would see the nurse prescribe Aricept (donepezil) 5 mg orally during bedtime. Lastly, the nurse can also think of beginning begin Exelon (rivastigmine) 1.5 mg orally BID with an increase to 3 mg orally BID in 2 weeks. Out of the three options, the nurse chose to begin Exelon (rivastigmine) 1.5 mg orally BID with an increase to 3 mg orally BID in 2 weeks for various pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics reasons…..CONTD

Assignment Instructions: An Elderly Iranian Man with Alzheimer’s Disease

Case Study: An Elderly Iranian Man with Alzheimer’s Disease BACKGROUND

Mr. Akkad is a 76 year old Iranian male who is brought to your office by his eldest son for “strange behavior.” Mr. Akkad was seen by his family physician who ruled out any organic basis for Mr. Akkad’s behavior. All laboratory and diagnostic imaging tests (including CT-scan of the head) were normal.

According to his son, he has been demonstrating some strange thoughts and behaviors for the past two years, but things seem to be getting worse. Per the client’s son, the family noticed that Mr. Akkad’s personality began to change a few years ago. He began to lose interest in religious activities with the family and became more “critical” of everyone. They also noticed that things he used to take seriously had become a source of “amusement” and “ridicule.”

Over the course of the past two years, the family has noticed that Mr. Akkad has been forgetting things. His son also reports that sometimes he has difficult “finding the right words” in a conversation and then will shift to an entirely different line of conversation.

SUBJECTIVE

During the clinical interview, Mr. Akkad is pleasant, cooperative and seems to enjoy speaking with you. You notice some confabulation during various aspects of memory testing, so the PMHNP performs a Mini-Mental State Exam. Mr. Akkad scores 18 out of 30 with primary deficits in orientation, registration, attention & calculation, and recall. The score suggests moderate dementia.

MENTAL STATUS EXAM

Mr. Akkad is 76 year old Iranian male who is cooperative with today’s clinical interview. His eye contact is poor. Speech is clear, coherent, but tangential at times. He makes no unusual motor movements and demonstrates no tic. Self-reported mood is euthymic. Affect however is restricted. He denies visual or auditory hallucinations. No delusional or paranoid thought processes noted. He is alert and oriented to person, partially oriented to place, but is disoriented to time and event [he reports that he thought he was coming to lunch but “wound up here”- referring to your office, at which point he begins to laugh]. Insight and judgment are impaired. Impulse control is also impaired as evidenced by Mr. Akkad’s standing up during the clinical interview and walking towards the door. When the PMHNP asked where he was going, he stated that he did not know. Mr. Akkad denies suicidal or homicidal ideation.

Diagnosis: Major neurocognitive disorder due to Alzheimer’s disease (presumptive)

RESOURCES

  • Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (2002). Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Decision Point 1

Select what the PMHNP should do:

  • Begin Exelon (rivastigmine) 1.5 mg orally BID with an increase to 3 mg orally BID in 2 weeks
  • Begin Aricept (donepezil) 5 mg orally at BEDTIME
  • Begin Razadyne (galantamine) 4 mg orally BID
Decision Point 1

Begin Razadyne (galantamine) 4 mg orally BID

RESULTS OF DECISION POINT ONE

  • Client returns to clinic in four weeks
  • The client is accompanied by his son who reports that his father is “no better” from this medication
  • He reports that his father is still disinterested in attending religious services/activities, and continues to exhibit disinhibited behaviors
  • You continue to note confabulation and decide to administer the MMSE again. Mr. Akkad again scores 18 out of 30 with primary deficits in orientation, registration, attention & calculation, and recall
Decision Point Two

Increase Razadyne to 24 mg extended release daily

RESULTS OF DECISION POINT TWO

  • Client returns to clinic in four weeks
  • The client’s son accompanies the client to his appointment today. The client is in a wheelchair and is somewhat agitated
  • You are informed by the son that his father has not taken his medication since he got out of the hospital. Apparently, about 7 days after starting the Galantamine extended release, the client began having seizures which resulted in a fall and fractured hip. The son reports that his father is agitated with everyone and is asking for help in treating his agitation
Decision Point 3
  • Restart Razadyne extended release 24 mg
Guidance to Student

Razadyne extended release 24 mg is a “target” dose—not a starting dose. Side effects of Razadyne include GI side effects as well as dizziness. Rare side effects include seizures. If no other medications were added to the client’s medication regimen and no other physical issues were present (e.g., metabolic derangements), then the high dose of Razadyne in this client would most likely be responsible for his seizures, which resulted in the fall and the hip fracture. This would represent malpractice. If the PMHNP were to consider restarting Razadyne, it should be restarted at a proper starting dose, as side effects are often dose dependent.

Risperdal would not be appropriate to treat agitation in this client as the FDA has issued a black box warning against the treatment of agitation in dementia with antipsychotic medications. Although they can still be used despite black box warnings, the PMHNP should conduct a comprehensive assessment of this client to see if a physical issue is causing the agitation. A hip fracture is often associated with pain, and untreated pain may be the cause of the client’s agitation. Therefore, assessment for pain would be the correct choice in this scenario.

Never use psychotropic drugs to treat behaviors until physical causes of the behavior have been ruled out (e.g., pain, infection, constipation).

Finally, it is important to note that changes in the MMSE should be evaluated over the course of months, not weeks. The absence of change in the MMSE after 4 weeks of treatment should not be a source of concern.

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Decision Point 1

Begin Exelon (rivastigmine) 1.5 mg orally BID with an increase to 3 mg orally BID in 2 weeks

RESULTS OF DECISION POINT ONE

  • client returns to clinic in four weeks
  • The client is accompanied by his son who reports that his father is “no better” from this medication. He reports that his father is still disinterested in attending religious services/activities, and continues to exhibit disinhibited behaviors
  • You continue to note confabulation and decide to administer the MMSE again. Mr. Akkad again scores 18 out of 30 with primary deficits in orientation, registration, attention & calculation, and recall
Decision Point 2

Increase Exelon to 4.5 mg orally BID

RESULTS OF DECISION POINT TWO

  • Client returns to clinic in four weeks
  • Client’s son reports that the client is tolerating the medication well, but is still concerned that his father is no better
  • He states that his father is attending religious services with the family, which the son and the rest of the family is happy about. He reports that his father is still easily amused by things he once found serious
Decision Point 3
  • Increase Exelon to 6 mg orally BID
Guidance to Student

At this point, the client is reporting no side effects and is participating in an important part of family life (religious services). This could speak to the fact that the medication may have improved some symptoms. The PMHNP needs to counsel the client’s son on the trajectory of presumptive Alzheimer’s disease in that it is irreversible, and while cholinesterase inhibitors can stabilize symptoms, this process can take months. Also, these medications are incapable of reversing the degenerative process. Some improvements in problematic behaviors (such as disinhibition) may be seen, but not in all clients.

At this point, the PMHNP could maintain the current dose until the next visit in 4 weeks, or the PMHNP could increase it to 6 mg orally BID and see how the client is doing in 4 more weeks. Augmentation with Namenda is another possibility, but the PMHNP should maximize the dose of the cholinesterase inhibitor before adding augmenting agents. However, some experts argue that combination therapy should be used from the onset of treatment.

Finally, it is important to note that changes in the MMSE should be evaluated over the course of months, not weeks. The absence of change in the MMSE after 4 weeks of treatment should not be a source of concern.

  • Begin Aricept (donepezil) 5 mg orally at BEDTIME

RESULTS OF DECISION POINT ONE

  • Client returns to clinic in four weeks
  • The client is accompanied by his son who reports that his father is “no better” from this medication
  • He reports that his father is still disinterested in attending religious services/activities, and continues to exhibit disinhibited behaviors
  • You continue to note confabulation and decide to administer the MMSE again. Mr. Akkad again scores 18 out of 30 with primary deficits in orientation, registration, attention & calculation, and recall
Decision Point Two for An Elderly Iranian Man with Alzheimer’s Disease Case Study

Increase Aricept to 10 mg orally at BEDTIME

RESULTS OF DECISION POINT TWO

  • Client returns to clinic in four weeks
  • Client’s son reports that the client is tolerating the medication well, but is still concerned that his father is no better
  • He states that his father is attending religious services with the family, which the son and the rest of the family is happy about. He reports that his father is still easily amused by things he once found serious
Decision Point Three for An Elderly Iranian Man with Alzheimer’s Disease Case Study
  • Continue Aricept 10 mg orally at BEDTIME
Guidance to Student

At this point, it would be prudent for the PMHNP to continue Aricept at 10 mg orally at bedtime. Recall that this medication can take several months before stabilization of deterioration is noted. At this point, the client is attending religious services with the family, which has made the family happy. Disinhibition may improve in a few weeks, or it may not improve at all. This is a counseling point that the PMHNP should review with the son.

There is no evidence that Aricept given at doses greater than 10 mg per day has any therapeutic benefit. It can, however, cause side effects. Increasing to 15 and 20 mg per day would not be appropriate.

There is nothing in the clinical presentation to suggest that the Aricept should be discontinued. Whereas it may be appropriate to add Namenda to the current drug profile, there is no need to discontinue Aricept. In fact, NMDA receptor antagonist therapy is often used with cholinesterase inhibitors in combination therapy to treat Alzheimer’s disease. The key to using both medications is slow titration upward toward therapeutic doses to minimize negative side effects.

Finally, it is important to note that changes in the MMSE should be evaluated over the course of months, not weeks. The absence of change in the MMSE after 4 weeks of treatment should not be a source of concern.

To prepare for this Assignment:
  • Review this week’s Learning Resources. Consider how to assess and treat clients requiring therapy for dementia.
  • For insomnia
    • donepezil
    • galantamine
    • memantine
    • rivastigmine
  • Bui, Q. (2012). Antidepressants for agitation and psychosis in patients with dementia. American Family Physician, 85(1), 20–22. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/journals/afp.html

Note: Retrieved from from the Walden Library databases.

  • Meltzer, H. Y., Mills, R., Revell, S., Williams, H., Johnson, A., Bahr, D., & Friedman, J. H. (2010). Pimavanserin, a serotonin receptor inverse agonist for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease psychosis. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 881–891. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v35/n4/pdf/npp2009176a.pdf
ACTUAL ASSIGNMENT

PLEASE Addressed each of the following bullets with a subtopic, include references; in-text citation in each paragraph. Please use my articles and any additional one should come from USA and must be within last five years only that is from 2014 to 2018. Please do not begin a paragraph with author name(s) (PLEASE USE parenthetical/in-text citations) Thanks

The Assignment

Examine Case Study: An Elderly Iranian Man With Alzheimer’s Disease. You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the medication to prescribe to this client. Be sure to consider factors that might impact the client’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.

  • At each decision point stop to complete the following:
    • Decision #1
      • Which decision did you select?
      • Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
      • What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
      • Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
    • Decision #2
      • Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
      • What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
      • Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?
    • Decision #3
      • Why did you select this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
      • What were you hoping to achieve by making this decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.
      • Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients

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