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Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

As a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner, it is essential for you to have a strong background in foundational neuroscience. In order to diagnose and treat clients, you must not only understand the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, but also how medications for these disorders impact the central nervous system. These concepts of foundational neuroscience can be challenging to understand. Therefore, this Discussion is designed to encourage you to think through these concepts, develop a rationale for your thinking, and deepen your understanding by interacting with your colleagues.

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Required Readings

Note: All Stahl resources can be accessed through the Walden Library using this link. This link will take you to a log-in page for the Walden Library. Once you log into the library, the Stahl website will appear.

Stahl, S. M. (2013). Stahl’s essential psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific basis and practical applications (4th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press *Preface, pp. ix–x

Note: To access the following chapters, click on the Essential Psychopharmacology, 4th ed tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate chapter. Be sure to read all sections on the left navigation bar for each chapter.

  • Chapter 1, “Chemical Neurotransmission”
  • Chapter 2, “Transporters, Receptors, and Enzymes as Targets of Psychopharmacologic Drug Action”
  • Chapter 3, “Ion Channels as Targets of Psychopharmacologic Drug Action”

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2016i). Introduction to psychopharmacology [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 3 minutes.

References

  • Berg, K. A., & Clarke, W. P. (2018). Making sense of pharmacology: Inverse Agonism and functional selectivity. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 21(10), 962-977. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijnp/pyy071
  • Duncan, A. L., Song, W., & Sansom, M. S. (2020). Lipid-dependent regulation of ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors: Insights from structures and simulations. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 60(1), 31-50. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010919-023411

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Optional Resources

Laureate Education (Producer). (2009). Pathopharmacology: Disorders of the nervous system: Exploring the human brain [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 15 minutes.

Dr. Myslinski reviews the structure and function of the human brain. Using human brains, he examines and illustrates the development of the brain and areas impacted by disorders associated with the brain. Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

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Laureate Education (Producer). (2012). Introduction to advanced pharmacology [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 8 minutes.

In this media presentation, Dr. Terry Buttaro, associate professor of practice at Simmons School of Nursing and Health Sciences, discusses the importance of pharmacology for the advanced practice nurse. NURS6630 Week 1 Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

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To prepare for this Discussion:

  1. Review this week’s Learning Resources.
  2. Reflect on concepts of foundational neuroscience.

For this Discussion, review the Learning Resources and reflect on the concepts of foundational neuroscience as they might apply to your role as the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner in prescribing medications for patients.

  1. Explain the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents, including how partial and inverse agonist functionality may impact the efficacy of psychopharmacologic treatments.
  2. Compare and contrast the actions of g couple proteins and ion gated channels.
  3. Explain how the role of epigenetics may contribute to pharmacologic action.
  4. Explain how this information may impact the way you prescribe medications to patients. Include a specific example of a situation or case with a patient in which the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner must be aware of the medication’s action.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Analyze the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents
  • Compare the actions of g couple proteins to ion gated channels
  • Analyze the role of epigenetics in pharmacologic action
  • Analyze the impact of foundational neuroscience on the prescription of medication

ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS

Discussion Questions (DQ)

  • Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
  • Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
  • One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
  • I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.

Weekly Participation

  • Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
  • In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
  • Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
  • Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week. Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

APA Format and Writing Quality

  • Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
  • Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
  • I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.

Use of Direct Quotes

  • I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
  • As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
  • It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.

Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

LopesWrite Policy

  • For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
  • Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
  • Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
  • Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.

Late Policy

  • The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
  • Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
  • If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
  • I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
  • As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.

Communication

  • Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
    • Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
    • Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.

Discussion: Foundational Neuroscience

Week 1 Assignment Rubric

  Excellent

Point range: 90–100

Good

Point range: 80–89

Fair

Point range: 70–79

Poor

Point range: 0–69

In 4 or 5 sentences, describe the anatomy of the basic unit of the nervous sytem, the neuron. Include each part of the neuron and a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse. Be specific and provide examples. 12 (16%) – 13 (17.33%)

The response accurately and clearly describes in detail the anatomy of the neuron. The response accurately and clearly describes in detail each part of the neuron, and it includes a detailed explanation of the general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse.

Examples fully support the response provided.

11 (14.67%) – 11 (14.67%)

The response accurately describes the anatomy of the neuron. The response accurately describes each part of the neuron, and it includes a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse.

Examples support the response provided.

10 (13.33%) – 10 (13.33%)

The response provides an inaccurate or vague description of the anatomy of the neuron. The response inaccurately or vaguely describes each part of the neuron, and it includes an inaccurate or vague overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse.

Examples vaguely support the response provided.

0 (0%) – 9 (12%)

The response provides an inaccurate or incomplete description of the anatomy of the neuron, or is missing. The response inaccurately or incompletely describes each part of the neuron, and it includes an inaccurate or vague overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse, or is missing.

Examples do not support the response provided, or is missing.

Answer the following (listing is acceptable for these questions):

a. What are the major components that make up the subcortical structures?
b. Which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction?
c. What are the two key neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control?

12 (16%) – 13 (17.33%)

The response accurately and clearly details the major components that make up the subcortical structures.

The response accurately and clearly details which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction.

The response accurately and clearly identifies the two neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control.

11 (14.67%) – 11 (14.67%)

The response accurately identifies the major components that make up the subcortical structures.

The response accurately identifies which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction.

The response accurately identifies the two neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control.

10 (13.33%) – 10 (13.33%)

The response inaccurately identifies the major components that make up the subcortical structures.

The response inaccurately identifies which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction.

The response inaccurately identifies two neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control.

0 (0%) – 9 (12%)

The response inaccurately and incompletely identifies the major components that make up the subcortical structures, or is missing.

The response inaccurately and incompletely identifies which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction, or is missing.

The response inaccurately and incompletely identifies two neurotransmitters in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control, or is missing.

In 3 or 4 sentences, explain how glia cells function in the central nervous system. Be specific and provide examples. 12 (16%) – 13 (17.33%)

The response accurately and clearly explains in detail how glia cells function in the central nervous system.

Examples fully support the response provided.

11 (14.67%) – 11 (14.67%)

The response accurately explains how glia cells function in the central nervous system.

Examples support the response provided.

10 (13.33%) – 10 (13.33%)

The response inaccurately or vaguely explains how glia cells function in the central nervous system.

Examples inaccurately or vaguely support the response provided.

0 (0%) – 9 (12%)

The response inaccurately and vaguely explains how glia cells function in the central nervous system, or is missing.

Examples do not support the response provided, or is missing.

The synapse is an area between two neurons that allows for chemical communication. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain what part of the neurons are communicating with each other and in which direction does this communication occur? Be specific. 12 (16%) – 13 (17.33%)

The response accurately and clearly explains in detail the part of the neurons that communicate with each other and the direction in which this communication occurs.

11 (14.67%) – 11 (14.67%)

The response accurately explains the part of the neurons that communicate with each other and the direction in which this communication occurs.

10 (13.33%) – 10 (13.33%)

The response inaccurately or vaguely explains the part of the neurons that communicate with each other and the direction in which this communication occurs.

0 (0%) – 9 (12%)

The response inaccurately and vaguely explains the part of the neurons that communicate with each other and the direction in which this communication occurs, or is missing.

In 3–5 sentences, explain the concept of “neuroplasticity.” Be specific and provide examples. 12 (16%) – 13 (17.33%)

The response accurately and clearly explains in detail the concept of neuroplasticity.

Examples provided fully support the response provided.

11 (14.67%) – 11 (14.67%)

The response accurately explains the concept of neuroplasticity.

Examples provided support the response provided.

10 (13.33%) – 10 (13.33%)

The response inaccurately or vaguely explains the concept of neuroplasticity.

Examples inaccurately or vaguely support the response provided.

0 (0%) – 9 (12%)

The response inaccurately and vaguely explains the concept of neuroplasticity, or is missing.

Examples do not support the response provided, or is missing.

Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards:
Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation
5 (6.67%) – 5 (6.67%)

Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.

4 (5.33%) – 4 (5.33%)

Contains a few (1 or 2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

3.5 (4.67%) – 3.5 (4.67%)

Contains several (3 or 4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

0 (0%) – 2 (2.67%)

Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding.

Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list. 5 (6.67%) – 5 (6.67%)

Uses correct APA format with no errors.

4 (5.33%) – 4 (5.33%)

Contains a few (1 or 2) APA format errors.

3.5 (4.67%) – 3.5 (4.67%)

Contains several (3 or 4) APA format errors.

0 (0%) – 2 (2.67%)

Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors.

Total Points: 75

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