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Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: NURS 6521 Week 1

Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: NURS 6521 Week 1

Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: NURS 6521 Week 1

Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

As an advanced practice nurse assisting physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders, it is important to not only understand the impact of disorders on the body, but also the impact of drug treatments on the body. The relationships between drugs and the body can be described by pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacokinetics describes what the body does to the drug through absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, whereas pharmacodynamics describes what the drug does to the body. When selecting drugs and determining dosages for patients, it is essential to consider individual patient factors that might impact the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharamcodynamic processes. These patient factors include genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, behavior (i.e., diet, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, illicit drug abuse), and/or pathophysiological changes due to disease. In this Discussion, you reflect on a case from your past clinical experiences and consider how a particular patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes altered his or her response to a drug.

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To Prepare

  • Review the Resources for this module and consider the principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
  • Reflect on your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practices from the last 5 years and think about how pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors altered his or her anticipated response to a drug.
  • Consider factors that might have influenced the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes, such as genetics (including pharmacogenetics), gender, ethnicity, age, behavior, and/or possible pathophysiological changes due to disease.
  • Think about a personalized plan of care based on these influencing factors and patient history in your case study.

By Day 3 of Week 1

Post a description of the patient case from your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practice from the last 5 years. Then, describe factors that might have influenced pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of the patient you identified. Finally, explain details of the personalized plan of care that you would develop based on influencing factors and patient history in your case. Be specific and provide examples.

By Day 6 of Week 1

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days by suggesting additional patient factors that might have interfered with the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of the patients they described. In addition, suggest how the personalized plan of care might change if the age of the patient were different and/or if the patient had a comorbid condition, such as renal failure, heart failure, or liver failure.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link, and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 1 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 of Week 1 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 1

To Participate in this Discussion:

Week 1 Discussion

Readings for Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: NURS 6521 Week 1

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 1, “Prescriptive Authority” (pp. 1–3)
  • Chapter 2, “Rational Drug Selection and Prescription Writing” (pp. 4–7)
  • Chapter 3, “Promoting Positive Outcomes of Drug Therapy” (pp. 8–12)
  • Chapter 4, “Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Drug Interactions” (pp. 13–33)
  • Chapter 5, “Adverse Drug Reactions and Medication Errors” (pp. 34–42)
  • Chapter 6, “Individual Variation in Drug Response” (pp. 43–45)

American Geriatrics Society 2019 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. (2019). American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 67(4), 674–694. doi:10.1111/jgs.15767

American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults by American Geriatrics Society, in Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 67/Issue 4. Copyright 2019 by Blackwell Publishing. Reprinted by permission of Blackwell Publishing via the Copyright Clearance Center.

This article is an update to the Beers Criteria, which includes lists of potentially inappropriate medications to be avoided in older adults as well as newly added criteria that lists select drugs that should be avoided or have their dose adjusted based on the individual’s kidney function and select drug-drug interactions documented to be associated with harms in older adults.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-a). Code of federal regulations. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/21cfr/cfr/1300/1300_01.htm

This website outlines the code of federal regulations for prescription drugs.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-b). Mid-level practitioners authorization by state. Retrieved May 13, 2019 from http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugreg/practioners/index.html

This website outlines the schedules for controlled substances, including prescriptive authority for each schedule.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (2006). Practitioner’s manual. Retrieved from http://www.legalsideofpain.com/uploads/pract_manual090506.pdf
This manual is a resource for practitioners who prescribe, dispense, and administer controlled substances. It provides information on general requirements, security issues, recordkeeping, prescription requirements, and addiction treatment programs.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-c). Registration. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugreg/index.html

This website details key aspects of drug registration.

Fowler, M. D. M., & American Nurses Association. (2015). Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements: Development, Interpretation, and Application (2nd ed.). Silver Spring, Maryland: American Nurses Association.

This resource introduces the code of ethics for nurses and highlights critical aspects for ethical guideline development, interpretation, and application in practice.

Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2017). List of error-prone abbreviations, symbols, and dose designations. Retrieved from https://www.ismp.org/recommendations/error-prone-abbreviations-list

This website provides a list of prescription-writing abbreviations that might lead to misinterpretation, as well as suggestions for preventing resulting errors.

Ladd, E., & Hoyt, A. (2016). Shedding light on nurse practitioner prescribing. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 12(3), 166–173. doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2015.09.17

This article provides NPs with information regarding state-based laws for NP prescribing.

Sabatino, J. A., Pruchnicki, M. C., Sevin, A. M., Barker, E., Green, C. G., & Porter, K. (2017). Improving prescribing practices: A pharmacist‐led educational intervention for nurse practitioner students. Journal of the American Association ofNursePractitioners, 29(5), 248–254. doi:10.1002/2327-6924.12446

The authors of this article assess the impact of a pharmacist‐led educational intervention on family nurse practitioner (FNP) students’ prescribing skills, perception of preparedness to prescribe, and perception of pharmacist as collaborator.

Introduction to Advanced Pharmacology

Meet Dr. Terry Buttaro, associate professor of practice at Simmons College of Nursing and Health Sciences as she discusses the importance of pharmacology for the advanced practice nurse. (8m)

NURS 6521 Week 1: Basic Pharmacotherapeutic Concepts

In 2011, more than 3.7 billion drug prescriptions were filled at pharmacies in the United States (The Kaiser Family Foundation, 2011). With billions of drugs prescribed each year for the treatment and management of various disorders, it is essential for advanced practice nurses to familiarize themselves with common drug treatments and effects of these treatments on patients. When prescribing drugs, ensuring patient safety is the major concern. In many clinical settings, nurses work more closely with patients than any other health care provider, making it their responsibility to assist physicians with this task. As an advanced practice nurse maintaining patient safety, you must consider the many patient factors that impact pharmacotherapeutics.

This week you explore factors that influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in patients. You also examine patient factors that advanced practice nurses must consider when developing drug therapy plans.

Learning Objectives

By the end of this week, students will:

  • Analyze factors that influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics processes in patients
  • Assess patient factors and history to develop personalized plans of care
  • Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to pharmacotherapeutics
  • Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to prescribing drugs to treat geriatric patients. Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: NURS 6521 Week 1.

NURS 6521 Week 1 Quiz Answers (Walden)

  1. A nurse is caring for a patient who has recently moved from Vermont to south Florida. The patient has been on the same antihypertensive drug for 6 years and has had stable blood pressures and no adverse effects. Since her move, however, she reports “dizzy spells and weakness” and feels that the drug is no longer effective. The nurse suspects that the change in the effectiveness of the drug is related to
  2. A mother brings her 4-year-old child, who is vomiting and has a temperature of 103°F into the emergency department (ED). The ED physician orders acetaminophen (Tylenol) for the fever. The best form of Tylenol to give the child, considering her presentation, would be
  3. A nurse who is responsible for administering medications should understand that the goals of the MedWatch program are to (Select all that apply.)
  4. Which of the following affects drug distribution throughout the body?
  5. In response to a patient’s nausea, the nurse has mixed a dose of an antiemetic with 50 mL of sterile normal saline and will administer the dose by IV piggyback. What is the rationale for the use of IV piggyback?
  6. A patient with a variety of chronic health problems is being seen by her nurse practitioner, who is currently reviewing the patient’s medication regimen. Which of the patient’s medications should prompt the nurse to teach her to avoid drinking grapefruit juice?
  7. During a clinic visit, a patient complains of having frequent muscle cramps in her legs. The nurse’s assessment reveals that the patient has been taking over-the-counter laxatives for the past 7 years. The nurse informed the patient that prolonged use of laxatives
  8. Tylenol 325 mg/tablet, patient needs 650 mg; how many tables should patient take?
  9. The nurse is caring for a patient receiving an aminoglycoside (antibiotic) that can be nephrotoxic. Which of the following will alert the nurse that the patient may be experiencing nephrotoxicity?
  10. An elderly postsurgical patient has developed postoperative pneumonia in the days following abdominal surgery and is being treated with a number of medications. Which of the following medications that the nurse will administer has the slowest absorption?
  11. A home health nurse notes that there have been changes to a patient’s oral drug regimen. The nurse will closely monitor the new drug regimen to
  12. A 60-year-old African-American man lives with a number of chronic health problems. Genetic factors are likely to influence his etiology and/or treatment of
  13. A nurse is discussing with a patient the efficacy of a drug that his physician has suggested, and he begin taking. Efficacy of a drug means which of the following? Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: NURS 6521 Week 1
  14. A patient has been prescribed an oral drug that is known to have a high first-pass effect. Which of the following measures has the potential to increase the amount of the free drug that is available to body cells?
  15. Talwin given in combination with Vistaril diminishes the adverse effects of nausea caused by the Talwin. This drug interaction affecting the pharmacodynamics of the Talwin is
  16. A patient who has been admitted to the hospital for a mastectomy has stated that she has experienced adverse drug effects at various times during her life. Which of the following strategies should the nurse prioritize in order to minimize the potential of adverse drug effects during the patient’s stay in the hospital?
  17. The culture and sensitivity testing of a patient’s wound exudate indicates that a specific antibiotic is necessary for treatment. The United States Pharmacopeia–National Formulary indicates that the drug in question is 96% protein bound. What are the implications of this fact?
  18. A patient who has ongoing pain issues has been prescribed meperidine (Demerol) IM. How should the nurse best administer this medication?
  19. On the 1 a.m. rounds, the nurse finds a patient awake and frustrated that she cannot go to sleep. The nurse administers an ordered hypnotic to help the patient sleep. Two hours later, the nurse finds the patient out of bed, full of energy and cleaning her room. The nurse evaluates the patient’s response to the hypnotic as
  20. A patient with a recent diagnosis of acute renal failure has a long-standing seizure disorder which has been successfully controlled for several years with antiseizure medications. The nurse should recognize that the patient’s compromised renal function will likely
  21. For which of the following patients would a nasogastric tube most likely be considered to aid in the administration of medications?
  22. A patient has been receiving regular doses of an agonist for 2 weeks. Which of the following should the nurse anticipate?
  23. In which of the following patients would a nurse expect to experience alterations in drug metabolism?
  24. Mr. Lacuna is an 83-year-old resident of a long-term care facility who has a diagnosis of moderate Alzheimer disease. Mr. Lacuna’s physician recently prescribed oral rivastigmine, but he was unable to tolerate the drug due to its gastrointestinal effects. As a result, he has been ordered the transdermal patch form of the medication. When administering this form of rivastigmine, the nurse should
  25. A nurse who provides care for older adults is aware of the high incidence of drug interactions in this population. When educating a group of seniors about the prevention of drug interactions, the nurse should encourage them to
  26. A 70-year-old woman with a history of atrial fibrillation has been admitted with a lower gastrointestinal bleed. During the nurse’s admission assessment, the nurse realizes that the patient has been taking ginkgo biloba supplements in addition to her prescribed warfarin, a combination that has resulted in bleeding. What nursing diagnosis should the nurse identify when planning this patient’s care?
  27. A 72-year-old man who is unable to sleep since admission into the hospital is given a hypnotic medication at 9 p.m. The nurse finds the patient drowsy and confused at 10 a.m. the next day. The nurse is aware that this behavior is most likely due to
  28. A nurse is caring for a 73-year-old man who is receiving drug therapy. He is beginning to exhibit signs of decline in his renal system, yet his current serum creatinine level is normal. The nurse will base the patient’s plan of care on the understanding that there is
  29. An elderly patient with a history of congestive heart failure has been admitted to hospital with failure to thrive and admission blood work reveals a hemoglobin level of 6.9 g/dL. The care team has consequently administered two units of packed red blood cells, but auscultation of the client’s lungs now reveals diffuse crackles. Administration of what drug is likely to resolve the patient’s pulmonary edema?
  30. A nurse is administering drugs to a 70-year-old patient who has a reduced plasma albumin level. When assessing the patient for therapeutic outcomes of drug therapy, the nurse will also be careful to observe for
  31. An 80-year-old man has been prescribed oxycodone for severe, noncancer, chronic pain. He tells the nurse that he has difficulty swallowing and asks if he can crush the tablet before swallowing. The nurse will advise the patient that
  32. An 80-year-old patient has been taking lorazepam since his wife died a year ago. He has been staying with his son, but will now move to an assisted living facility. Before admission to the assisted living facility, the patient’s physician has determined that the drug is no longer needed. The nurse at the facility will plan to
  33. A nurse is conducting an assessment of a patient who has recently had several changes made to her drug regimen. What assessment question most directly addresses the safety implications of the patient’s drug regimen?
  34. A nurse notes new drug orders for a patient who is already getting several medications. Which of the following is the most important consideration when preparing to administer the new drugs?
  35. A 70-year-old woman has experienced peripheral edema and decreasing stamina in recent months and has sought care from her primary care provider. The patient’s subsequent diagnostic workup has resulted in a diagnosis of chronic heart failure. The woman has been prescribed digoxin and the nurse has begun patient education. What should the nurse teach the patient about her new medication?
  36. A 77-year-old woman who is 5 feet 3 inches tall and weighs 89 lbs has been admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of failure to thrive. What action should the nurse prioritize when addressing the woman’s apparent lack of nutrition?
  37. A 70-year-old patient has just started taking lorazepam 10 days ago for anxiety issues related the death of her husband. She is staying with her daughter for a couple of weeks. The patient’s daughter has noticed that her mother is having difficulty walking and seems to be confused at times and calls the clinic to report this to the nurse. The nurse will inform the daughter that
  38. A nurse is teaching an older adult patient about polypharmacy. Which of the following statements best describe this term? Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: NURS 6521 Week 1.

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Rubric Detail

Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric’s layout. Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: NURS 6521 Week 1.

Content

Rubric Details

Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric’s layout.

Content
Name: NURS_6521_Week1_Discussion_Rubric

Outstanding Performance Excellent Performance Competent Performance Proficient Performance Room for Improvement
Main Posting:
Response to the discussion question is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

Points Range: 44 (44%) – 44 (44%)

Thoroughly responds to the discussion question(s)

is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

supported by at least 3 current, credible sources

Points Range: 40 (40%) – 43 (43%)

Responds to the discussion question(s)

is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth

supported by at least 3 credible references

Points Range: 35 (35%) – 39 (39%)

Responds to most of the discussion question(s)

is somewhat reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

50% of post has exceptional depth and breadth

supported by at least 3 credible references

Points Range: 31 (31%) – 34 (34%)

Responds to some of the discussion question(s)

one to two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed

is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis

somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

post is cited with fewer than 2 credible references

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 30 (30%)

Does not respond to the discussion question(s)

lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria

lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis

does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

contains only 1 or no credible references

Main Posting:
Writing

Points Range: 6 (6%) – 6 (6%)

Written clearly and concisely

Contains no grammatical or spelling errors

Fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style

Points Range: 5.5 (5.5%) – 5.5 (5.5%)

Written clearly and concisely

May contain one or no grammatical or spelling error

Adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style

Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Written concisely

May contain one to two grammatical or spelling error

Adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style

Points Range: 4.5 (4.5%) – 4.5 (4.5%)

Written somewhat concisely

May contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors

Contains some APA formatting errors

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 4 (4%)

Not written clearly or concisely

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style

Main Posting:
Timely and full participation

Points Range: 10 (10%) – 10 (10%)

Meets requirements for timely and full participation

posts main discussion by due date

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
NA

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
NA

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
NA

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
Does not meet requirement for full participation

First Response:

Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources. Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: NURS 6521 Week 1

Points Range: 9 (9%) – 9 (9%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings

responds to questions posed by faculty

the use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives

Points Range: 8.5 (8.5%) – 8.5 (8.5%)
Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings

Points Range: 7.5 (7.5%) – 8 (8%)
Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting

Points Range: 6.5 (6.5%) – 7 (7%)
Response is on topic, may have some depth

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 6 (6%)
Response may not be on topic, lacks depth

First Response:
Writing

Points Range: 6 (6%) – 6 (6%)

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues

Response to faculty questions are fully answered if posed

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources

Response is effectively written in Standard Edited English

Points Range: 5.5 (5.5%) – 5.5 (5.5%)

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues

Response to faculty questions are answered if posed

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources

Response is effectively written in Standard Edited English

Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues

Response to faculty questions are mostly answered if posed

Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources

Response is written in Standard Edited English

Points Range: 4.5 (4.5%) – 4.5 (4.5%)

Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication

Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered if posed

Few or no credible sources are cited

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 4 (4%)

Responses posted in the discussion lack effective

Response to faculty questions are missing

No credible sources are cited

First Response:
Timely and full participation

Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Meets requirements for timely and full participation

posts by due date

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
NA

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
NA

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
NA

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
Does not meet requirement for full participation

Second Response:
Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources.

Points Range: 9 (9%) – 9 (9%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings * responds to questions posed by faculty

the use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives

Points Range: 8.5 (8.5%) – 8.5 (8.5%)
Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings. Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: NURS 6521 Week 1

Points Range: 7.5 (7.5%) – 8 (8%)
Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting

Points Range: 6.5 (6.5%) – 7 (7%)
Response is on topic, may have some depth

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 6 (6%)
Response may not be on topic, lacks depth

Second Response:
Writing

Points Range: 6 (6%) – 6 (6%)

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues

Response to faculty questions are fully answered if posed

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources

Response is effectively written in Standard Edited English

Points Range: 5.5 (5.5%) – 5.5 (5.5%)

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues

Response to faculty questions are answered if posed

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources

Response is effectively written in Standard Edited English

Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues

Response to faculty questions are mostly answered if posed

Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources

Response is written in Standard Edited English

Points Range: 4.5 (4.5%) – 4.5 (4.5%)

Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication

Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered if posed

Few or no credible sources are cited

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 4 (4%)

Responses posted in the discussion lack effective

Response to faculty questions are missing

No credible sources are cited. Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: NURS 6521 Week 1

Second Response:
Timely and full participation

Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Meets requirements for timely and full participation

Posts by due date

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
NA

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
NA

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
NA

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
Does not meet requirement for full participation

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