Essay Sampling Theory Generalizability in Nursing Research


Measuring self-care behaviors is crucial in diabetes research worldwide. Having a common measure of self-care represents an unmet need limiting the development of science. The Self-Care of Diabetes Inventory was developed to address limitations of previous tools that were not theoretically grounded, strong in psychometrics, and clinically validated. However, the generalizability and comparability of the Self-Care of Diabetes Inventory has not been tested across cultures and languages.

The aim of this study was to test the invariance of the Self-Care of Diabetes Inventory measurement model between Italy and the United States. Data from two multicenter cross-sectional studies were used. Two diabetes clinics and two hospitals in Italy and the United States were involved. We enrolled 200 adults in Italy and 226 in the United States, all with a confirmed diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 diabetes

The Self-Care of Diabetes Inventory was used to measure self-care maintenance, monitoring, and management behaviors as described in the middle range theory of self-care of chronic illness. Configural, metric, scalar, and strict invariance were tested for each scale.

Three of the four measurement equivalence levels were supported in the three Self-Care of Diabetes Inventory Scales, whereas strict invariance—the highest level—was reached only by the Self-Care Maintenance and Self-Care Monitoring

Scales. Clear support for the use of the Self-Care of Diabetes Inventory in diabetes research was provided.

Cross-national comparisons of self-care between groups of Italian and U.S. patients are supported, based on the invariance of the measurement model. Aggregation of research data obtained using the Self-Care of Diabetes Inventory across countries could support knowledge development in the field of diabetes self-care.Describe sampling theory and provide examples to illustrate your definition. Discuss generalizability as it applies to nursing research.

Sampling theory is the study of the relationship between a given population and the portion picked randomly as a representation of the whole population (McNiff & Petrik, 2018).Sampling theory can be considered biased since the researcher is picking the population group they want to study. An example of sampling is when the researcher takes a group of individuals such as smokers and starts them on nicotine patches to see if it helps smokers quit smoking.

Generalizability is the extension of research findings or conclusions made from samples during a research large population(Polit, 2018). As the example previously stated in the text the researcher is generalizing the smoking population that nicotine patches will help with smoking cessation when it probably won’t help everyone.Sampling theory & generalizability in nursing research essay. The healthcare field care is sometimes based on generalization due to medications that work for most people to manage ailments, however some medical institutions are trying to push for individualized care plans for patients.


● McNiff, P & Petrik, M. (2018). Nursing research: Understanding methods for best practice. Retrieved from est-practice/v1.1

● Polit, D. F. (2010, July 03). Generalization in quantitative and qualitative research: Myths and strategies. Retrieved May 17, 2019, from