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GCU NUR 641E Topic 7: Neurological, Musculoskeletal, And Integumentary System: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

GCU NUR 641E Topic 7: Neurological, Musculoskeletal, And Integumentary System: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

GCU NUR 641E Topic 7: Neurological, Musculoskeletal, And Integumentary System: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

Topic 7 DQ 1

Apr 14-16, 2022

Choose a medical condition from the neurological, musculoskeletal, or integumentary system and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Make sure that you select a different medical condition than your peers. Include the name of the medical condition in the subject line so that the medical condition can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

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Nicole Santos

Posted Date

Apr 18, 2022, 9:26 PM

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Alopecia

Hair loss can occur anywhere on the body due to the autoimmune illness known as alopecia areata, in which the body destroys own hair follicles. Typically, hair loss happens in overlapping, circular regions. It is crucial to inform the patient on the underlying causes of their diagnosis and the range of potential treatments. It is crucial to promote a healthy diet that contains 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight and to stop taking any drugs that can impair hair development. You can also offer support and counseling to help with coping with hair loss. Suggesting various styling techniques and hair colors can also help in reducing the appearance of thinning hair volume and assist with coping. 

References

Hair loss types: Alopecia areata overview. American Academy of Dermatology. (2022). Retrieved April 18, 2022, from https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/hair-loss/types/alopecia

Mims. (n.d.). Alopecia patient education. MIMS Malaysia. Retrieved April 18, 2022, from https://specialty.mims.com/alopecia/patient%20education

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GCU NUR 641E Topic 7: Neurological, Musculoskeletal, And Integumentary System: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy — Topic 7 DQ 2

Apr 14-18, 2022

Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

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Nicole Santos

Posted Date

Apr 18, 2022, 9:47 PM

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Minoxidil

Alopecia areata is usually treated with minoxidil, also referred to as Rogaine. To strengthen existing hair follicles and encourage hair growth, minoxidil aids to boost blood supply and nutrients to the hair follicles. Inflammation, eczema, abnormal hair growth on the body, redness at the application site, burning, and increasing hair loss are some of the major side effects of minoxidil. It is cautioned that one minoxidil is used, it should be used indefinitely, with apparent hair growth within a minimum of four months; avoid contact with scalp once it is applied as it can easily be rubbed off; may experience change in hair color; avoid in patients with heart issues; avoid contact with eyes.

Reference

Goren, A., Naccarato, T., Situm, M., Kovacevic, M., Lotti, T., & McCoy, J. (2017). Mechanism of action of minoxidil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia is likely mediated by mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase-induced stem cell differentiation. Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents, 31(4), 1049–1053.

Cristina

Posted Date

Apr 18, 2022, 9:16 PM

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Levodopa (L-Dopa)

Levodopa is a dopamine precursor; it is beneficial for controlling bradykinetic symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and improving the quality of life in people with idiopathic PD (Gandhi KR, 2021). Levodopa may halt the course of Parkinson’s disease or provide further advantages long after the medicine is stopped.

Mechanism of Action

Levodopa is converted to dopamine in both the CNS and the periphery. Inhibitors of dopamine decarboxylase prevent Levodopa from being converted to dopamine in the periphery, allowing more Levodopa to penetrate the Blood-Brain Barrier (Gandhi KR, 2021). Once converted to dopamine, it acts on postsynaptic dopaminergic receptors, compensating for the loss of endogenous dopamine.

Hints for monitoring

Individuals on Levodopa must periodically test their BUN, creatinine, and hepatic function (Gandhi KR, 2021). (Gandhi KR, 2021). Levodopa users must maintain a healthy liver because it is where the drug is decarboxylated. It’s also crucial to assess the intraocular pressure of someone with glaucoma to make sure it’s safe. It is crucial to monitor peripheral neuropathy both before and after using levodopa to see whether it will get worse. Additionally, patients should have regular dyskinesia checks. Therefore, it is crucial to watch patients who take dopaminergic medications for psychotic behavior and hallucinations. Hallucinations can happen when people are confused or have many dreams.

Side effects

Taking Levodopa’s most common side effects are nausea, dizziness, headache, and sleepiness. Typical side effects for older people who take Levodopa are confusion, hallucinations, delusions, psychosis, and agitation.

Drug interactions

Levodopa is contraindicated when monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are used concurrently, as this might result in a hypertensive crisis (Gandhi KR, 2021). However, when transitioning from Levodopa to an MAOI or vice versa, a 14-day washout period should be observed. Patients using D2 antagonists may decrease the effects of Levodopa, which may lessen the drug’s positive benefits (Gandhi KR, 2021).

Reference:

Gandhi KR, S. A. (2021, April 30). Levodopa (L-dopa) – StatPearls – NCBI bookshelf. National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482140/

Topic 7: Neurological, Musculoskeletal, And Integumentary System: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

Apr 14-20, 2022

Max Points:30

Objectives:

  1. Describe normal pathophysiology and alterations in the pathophysiology of neurological disorders, musculoskeletal, and integumentary system disorders.
  2. Integrate knowledge of pathophysiology and pharmacology into teaching and educational materials in diverse settings.
  3. Describe a pharmacological intervention using an evidence-based treatment guideline.
Topic 8: Endocrine System: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

Apr 21-27, 2022

Max Points:180

Objectives:

  1. Describe normal pathophysiology and alterations of the endocrine system.
  2. Integrate knowledge of pathophysiology and pharmacology into teaching and educational materials in diverse settings.
  3. Describe a pharmacological intervention using an evidence-based treatment guideline.
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