N4325 Nurse Research Article Critique From UTA
This question are from RESEARCH ARTICLE CRITIQUE PART 2 FROM NURS 432 UTA ARTICLE (MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSE PERCEIVED SELF CONFIDENCE AND LEADERSHIP ABILITIES AS FIRST RESPONDERS IN ACUTE PATIENT DETERIORATION EVENTS HART EL AL, 2014)
Questions 1 – 9: Sample. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters: 9 & 12)
What sampling method or plan was used by the authors in this study?
- Simple random sampling
- Systematic sampling
- Convenience sampling
- Network sampling
According to Grove, Gray, and Burns (2015), what are the potential biases of this sampling method?
- This is a strong probability sampling method with very little potential for bias
- This method is used when an ordered list of all members of the population are available, and provides a random but not equal chance for inclusion in the study.
- This method provides little opportunity to control for bias because subjects are included in the study merely because they happen to be in the right place at the right time.
- This method is specific to the individuals who were recruited and the information gained cannot be generalized to others who don’t share these types of experiences.
- None of the above biases best describe the sampling method chosen by the author.
What was the final sample size reported by the authors for this study?
- 500 participants
- 126 participants
- 352 participants
- 148 participants
Was a power analysis conducted? If so, which statement best describes the results of the power analysis?
- The authors mention that a power analysis was conducted using a power of .80, an alpha value of 0.05, and a small effect size of 0.25.
- The authors mention that an a priori power analysis was conducted, and 500 subjects were determined to be needed for the study.
- The authors do not report that a power analysis was conducted.
Which of these statements would be considered to be inclusion criterion for the sample in the research article? (select all that apply)
- Have at least two years of experience as a nurse
- Work as a Medical Surgical nurse providing direct patient care
- Be a member of the Medical Surgical Nurses Association
- 18 years of age or older
Which of these statements would be considered to be an exclusion criterion specifically identified by the author for the sample in the research article?
- The exclusion criteria were explained verbally during recruitment.
- History of depression/ mental health issues.
- No exclusion criteria were described.
- Participants only worked on the night shift.
What is the acceptance rate for this study? (Hint: see page 253 in your text)
- 148/500 X 100% = 29.6%
- 126/148 X 100% = 86.4%
- unknown / cannot be calculated.
Which of the following would be accurate for the attrition rate for this study?
- 148/500 X 100% = 29.6%
- 126/148 X 100% = 86.4%
- 126/500 X 100% = 25%
What was the setting for this research study? Briefly describe the setting and indicate whether it was appropriate for conducting this study.
- The setting for this study was a partially controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.
- The setting for this study was a natural or field setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.
- The setting for this study was a highly controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design.
- The setting for this study was not well described by the authors and therefore not appropriate for conducting this study.
Question 10 – 14: Measurement Methods. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 10 & 12.)
Which ones of these questionnaires, scales, or physiologic measures is used in this research study? (Select all that apply).
- Leadership Ability Scale
- The Nursing Stress Scale
- Self-confidence Scale
- The Quality of Life Scale
How do the authors describe the CURRENT reliability of the Leadership Ability Scale?
- Two follow-up emails were sent to potential participants.
- They compared the odd and even questions on the test to determine their equivalence.
- A team of staff nurses was trained by the primary investigator to administer the questionnaire.
- They tested the current group of subjects twice using the same questionnaire (test-retest reliability).
- They computed Cronbach’s alpha on the Leadership Ability Scale that was administered to this group of subjects.
How do the authors describe the validity of the Self-confidence Scale?
- discriminant validity demonstrated that each subscale measured the same constructs.
- evidence of validity from contrasting groups because they gave it to spouses of MS nurses.
- there was no mention of determining the validity of the Self-confidence Scale.
- The authors had experience with administering this questionnaire.
What types of questionnaires or surveys were used in this research study? (Select all that apply.)
- The authors developed the Self-confidence Scale.
- The authors developed their own questions to ask about demographic information.
- Interviews were reportedly used, but the authors do not explain what was included in them.
- The authors report adding a few of their own questions at the end of the demographic questionnaire.
- The authors used previously developed questionnaires or surveys to measure the study variables.
- This study did not use any questionnaires or surveys.
Were any physiological measurements collected from the subjects for the purpose of this study?
Question 15- 16: Data Collection. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 10 & 12)
Which one of the following best describes the data collection process used in this study?
- questionnaires / surveys were completed via the telephone.
- participants were given questionnaires on enrollment in the study and asked to drop the sealed envelope in a locked box at the nurses’ station.
- questionnaires / surveys were mailed to the prospective participants and returned in a self-addressed stamped envelope.
- Nurse researchers interviewed the study participants in a focus group.
- Questionnaires were distributed to medical-surgical nurses by making rounds on the nursing units and attending staff meetings.
If there were more than one data collector for the study, would an estimation of inter-rater reliability be an important concept for the authors to report on for this study?
- yes, and the authors reported their efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.
- yes, but the authors do not discuss any efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability.
- no, the issue of inter-rater reliability does not apply here.
Question 17 – 19: Data Analysis. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 11 & 12)
What descriptive statistics are used in this study? (Select all that apply).
- standard deviation
- percentage distributions
What inferential statistics were used to examine the data obtained from the subjects? (Select all that apply)
- correlational analysis
- Factor Analysis
- regression analysis
- None of the above inferential statistics were used in this study.
What is the level of significance (alpha) set at for this study?
- .05 or 5%
- 0.10 or 10%
- 0.1 or 1%
- an alpha level or level of significance chosen by the authors was not specifically mentioned in the text of the article.
Question 20-25: Researcher’s Interpretation of the Findings. (For help with these questions, refer to chapters 11 & 12)
There are several statistically significant findings in this study. Which of these statements from the article would be considered a significant and predicted result? (select all that apply)
- As MS nurses’ perceptions of their self-confidence increases, perceived leadership abilities in handling APD events increased (r = .553, p < .0001)
- Younger nurses have higher levels of perceived self-confidence, (B = 0.122, t =2.23, p = .027).
- Age and certification status were identified as the best predictors of perceived self-confidence and leadership abilities in the regression model.
- The MS nurses with the highest educational degrees impact leadership ability in managing as a first responder in an APD event.
Which of these statements from the article would be considered a non-significant result.
- The older the nurse, the higher the level of perceived self-confidence in managing APD events.
- Years of licensed and educational levels do not predict perceived self-confidence and leadership abilities to manage APD events.
- As MS nurses’ perceptions of their self-confidence increases, perceived leadership abilities in handling APD events increased (r = .553, p<.0001)
Which one of these statements from the article would be considered clinically important?
- Age and certification status were identified as the best predictors of perceived self-confidence and leadership abilities in managing APD events.
- Younger nurses are better prepared to manage APD events compared to older nurses.
- According to this study results, a low level of self-confidence is not a known factor for nursing turnover in MS nurses.
- Six participants were removed from the study due to incomplete surveys.
Which statements below implied from the article would be considered a limitation of the study? (Select all that apply)
- The use of a convenience sample of nurses within one geographic area and one hospital system.
- Length of the questionnaire perhaps resulting in instrument fatigue and nurses not completing the questionnaire.
- A small sample size with a low response rate.
- Additional education given on the study topic at one of the hospital settings during the data collection phase.
Which one of these statements would be considered a statement regarding generalization of these results?
- The results indicated that there were low levels of self-confidence in this group of MS nurses and can be generalized to all MS nurses in the United States.
- The survey was administered only to MS nurses who were members of the Medical Surgical Nurses Association (MSNA).
- A convenience sample of MS nurses decreases generalizability.
- The use of a power analysis influenced the generalization of the results to all MS nurses.
Which of these statements from the article would be considered a recommendation for future studies? (Select all that apply.)
- Using a convenience sample may introduce sampling bias; therefore caution is warranted when making inferences about the study findings.
- Further strategies need to be developed to increase nurses’ self confidence and execution of leadership abilities in handling deterioration events for positive patient outcomes.
- Interestingly, only about 50% or less of nurses felt comfortable a great deal of the time in being identified as a leader and coordinating immediate responders from their unit.
- Furthermore, team training is needed to enhance medical-surgical nurses’ abilities to communicate effectively and optimize team performance when working with rapid response and CRT members.