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NR 439 CCN Week 6 Relationship Between Nursing Job Staffing

NR 439 CCN Week 6 Relationship Between Nursing Job Staffing

NR 439 CCN Week 6 Relationship Between Nursing Job Staffing

Week 6: Reading Research Literature Worksheet

Directions: Complete the following required worksheet using the required article for the current session.

Name: Heather Hough


Purpose of the Study: 

Research & Design: 


Data Collection: 

Data Analysis: 



Reading Research Literature:

  1. Read over each of the following directions, the required Reading Research Literature worksheet, and grading rubric.
  2. Complete the required Reading Research Literature (RRL) worksheet (Links to an external site.). This must be used. (ATTACHED)
  3. Required article to use is attached
  4. This assignment contains:
    • Purpose of the Study: Using information from the required article and your own words, summarize the purpose of the study. Describe what the study is about.
    • Research & Design: Using information from the required article and your own words, summarize the description of the type of research and the design of the study. Include how it supports the purpose (aim or intent) of the study.
    • Sample: Using information from the required article and your own words, summarize the population (sample) for the study; include key characteristics, sample size, sampling technique.
    • Data Collection: Using information from the required article and your own words, summarize one data that was collected and how the data was collected from the study.
    • Data Analysis: Using information from the required article and your own words, summarize one of the data analysis/ tests performed or one method of data analysis from the study; include what you know/learned about the descriptive or statistical test or data analysis method.
    • Limitations: Using information from the required article and your own words, summarize one limitation reported in the study.
    • Findings/Discussion: Using information from the required article and your own words, summarize one of the authors’ findings/discussion reported in the study. Include one interesting detail you learned from reading the study.
    • Reading Research Literature: Summarize why it is important for you to read and understand research literature. Summarize what you learned from completing the reading research literature activity worksheet.


Debra C. Hairr Helen Salisbury Mark Johannsson Nancy Redfern-Vance Nurse Staffing and the Relationship to Job Satisfaction And Retention EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The purpose of this quantitative, correlational research study was to examine the relationships between nurse staffing, job satisfaction, and nurse retention in an acute care hospital environment. Results indicated a moderately strong, inverse relationship between job satisfaction and nurse retention. A weak positive relationship between job satisfaction and nurse staffing was identified. Nurses reported experiencing job dissatisfaction in the past 6 months specifically related to the number of patients assigned. Analysis suggested nurses are staying with their current employer because of the current economic environment. Improving nurse staffing will be necessary when the economy improves to prevent the departure of discontented nurses from acute care facilities. 2004, THE INSTITUTE OF Medicine released a report, Keeping Patients Safe: Transforming the Nursing Work Environment. This report recognized appropriate nurse staffing levels are essential for patient safety. Nurse-patient ratios are a starting point in the discussion of appropriate levels of nurse staffing. NR 439 CCN Week 6 Relationship Between Nursing Job Staffing

Researchers agree patient acuity and skill mix must also be taken into consideration when addressing nurse staffing issues (Tevington, 2011). There is a paucity of research that addresses patient acuity, skill mix, and nursepatient ratios. The American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) Magnet® hospitals are widely recognized for promoting safe and appropriate nurse staffing and generally I N have good patient outcomes (Trinkoff et al., 2010). According to Needleman and colleagues (2011), Magnet hospitals also have lower patient morbidity and mortality rates than non-Magnet hospitals. A 3-year study conducted in a Magnet hospital analyzed over three million patient records. Researchers examined the effect of inadequate nurse staffing on mortality. There was a 6% risk of death for patients when a shift with a nurse staffing shortage of just 8 hours occurred. The literature suggests nurse-patient ratios of 4:1 or less provide the most optimal outcomes for patients (Aiken, Clarke, Sloane, Sochalski, & Silber, 2002; Aiken, Clarke, Sloane, Lake, & Cheney, 2008; Aiken et al., 2010; Needleman et al., 2011; Rosenberg, 2011). DEBRA C. HAIRR, DHSc, MSN, RNC-OB, is Contributing Faculty, College of Health Sciences, School of Nursing, Walden University, Minneapolis, MN. HELEN SALISBURY, PhD, is Assistant Professor, Arizona School of Health Sciences at A. T. Still University, Mesa, AZ. MARK JOHANNSSON, DHSc, MPH, is Adjunct Professor, Arizona School of Health Sciences at A. T. Still University, Mesa, AZ. NANCY REDFERN-VANCE, PhD, RN, CNM, is Associate Professor, College of Nursing, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA. 142 NURSING ECONOMIC$/May-June 2014/Vol. 32/No. 3 Health care in the United States is a commodity, and nurses are an expensive budgetary consideration. Health care facilities have the potential to achieve large financial savings by reducing the number of nurses. Despite the evidence, many institutions are unwilling or unable to provide nurse staffing that is supported by the growing body of research (Duffin, 2012; Garretson, 2004). Implementing this one evidence-based practice could have a positive impact on patient outcomes, ultimately decreasing patient morbidity and mortality (Aiken et al., 2002; Aiken et al., 2008; Aiken et al., 2010; NR 439 CCN Week 6 Relationship Between Nursing Job Staffing

Needleman et al., 2011; Shamliyan, Kane, Mueller, Duval, & Wilt, 2009). Positive patient outcomes are not the only benefit from improved nurse staffing. Aiken and associates (2002) examined nurse satisfaction and retention issues. The authors noted that when nurses are exposed to inadequate staffing levels, they leave their positions. Retaining as many nurses in their roles as possible makes fiscal sense for any organization. Costs to an organization to retrain a specialty nurse have been estimated as being as high as $80,000 (Burr, Stichler, & Poeitler, 2011; Tellez, 2012). Not only will patient care and outcomes improve with additional nurses, but also cost savings may result. Aiken and co-authors (2010) suggested a ratio of four patients to one nurse will save each health care organization $60,000 a year. Retaining just one nurse and utilizing the recommended nurse-patient ratios may result in savings of around $140,000 every year. That is just for one nurse retained in his or her position, taking care of four patients on a medical-surgical floor. Extrapolating that number to every medical-surgical floor, in every hospital across the United States, would result in the realization of enormous savings to health care. In the current economy, administrators would not be fis- cally responsible if they did not examine every avenue that could save lives, improve nursing job satisfaction, retain nurses at the bedside, and save health care dollars. Methods Study participants. This quantitative, correlational research study was developed to examine the relationships between nurse staffing, job satisfaction, and nurse retention in an acute care hospital environment. Survey participants were practicing licensed registered nurses with at least 6 months of acute care nursing experience. NR 439 CCN Week 6 Relationship Between Nursing Job Staffing

A consecutive sample was recruited on nursing listserv’s, Facebook, MySpace, and Consecutive sampling is a “form of non-probability sampling where survey participants are recruited as they become available” (Portney & Watkins, 2009, p. 865). Inclusion criteria for participating in the survey included (a) licensed as a registered nurse, (b) a minimum of 6 months direct patient care nursing experience, and (c) employed in an acute care hospital. Additional demographic data were collected and included (a) gender, (b) age, (c) academic preparation for initial licensure, (d) highest level of education attained, (e) nursing specialty, (f) if employed in a Magnet hospital, and (g) number of years nursing experience. The research protocol for this study was approved by the A. T. Still University Institutional Review Board. Survey tool. The survey tool is a revision of one of the most widely used tools to assess the clinical nursing environment, the Nursing Work Index (NWI) (Kramer & Hafner, 1989). The NWI consists of 65 items on a 4-point Likerttype scale ranging from 1 (strongly agree) to 4 (strongly disagree). The NWI scale was revised by Aiken and Patrician (2000). The authors used 57 of the original 65 NWI items for the Nursing Work Index- NURSING ECONOMIC$/May-June 2014/Vol. 32/No. 3 Revised (NWI-R). The NWI-R captures organizational attributes that characterize professional nursing practice environments including job satisfaction (Aiken & Patrician, 2000). The NWI-R has four subscales. The subscale that can be attributed to job satisfaction is the Control Over Practice (COP) subscale. The reliability of the NWI-R survey tool has been previously demonstrated with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.96 for the entire NWI-R, and the subscale COP alpha noted at 0.91 (Aiken & Patrician, 2000). Additional survey questions addressed the survey participants’ current experiences with nursepatient ratios and job dissatisfaction. The participants were asked the following additional questions: How many patients were assigned to you at the beginning of your last shift? Has the number of patients you have been assigned resulted in job dissatisfaction? Have you thought about leaving your current nursing position in the last 6 months due to job dissatisfaction? If this question was answered in the affirmative, an additional question was asked: Has the current economic downturn influenced your decision to stay in your current position? These additional questions were an attempt to gauge the effect that the economy may have on a nurse’s reluctance to change jobs in spite of job dissatisfaction. Data collection. Data were collected via an electronic survey. An explanatory invitation was posted online with inclusion criteria and the link to SurveyMonkey. The link was available for 30 days. Statistical Analysis Data were analyzed using the IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 20. Descriptive statistics were obtained for demographic and NWI-R COP subscale variables. The NWI-R COP data were tested for normality. Percentages and frequencies were also obtained. 143 Table 1. Sample Demographics Correlational analyses for each research question were performed. As ordinal scales were used in this study, and data were not normally distributed, nonparametric statistical analysis was appropriate. Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient Analysis was used to determine whether the predictive variables of job satisfaction and nurse staffing were related to the criterion variables of nurse retention and job satisfaction, respectively. The NWI-R COP was used to measure job satisfaction. NR 439 CCN Week 6 Relationship Between Nursing Job Staffing

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