NRNP 6540 Week 2 Soap Note Case Study
NRNP 6540 Week 2 Case Study
Mr. Y is a 78-year-old man who was born in Korea and moved to the U.S with his wife 50 years ago. Together, the couple opened a floral shop and ran the business for 40 years. Mrs. Y enjoyed watching her husband’s talent and love of nature come out in his flower arrangements.
When Mr. Y was in his late 60’s, he started having difficulty making his favorite flower arrangements. Their son also noticed Mr. Y misplacing tools, losing paper orders, and forgetting important pick-up times. At home, Mrs. Y noticed her husband having problems remembering recent events, and waking up at odd hours in the night thinking it was time to open the shop. Mr. Y was becoming irritable at home and at the shop. When Mr. Y was 70 years old, the family decided to sell the business. Their health-care providers confirmed that Mr. Y was presenting with early stage Alzheimer’s disease.
The family then decided that Mrs. Y would be appointed as her husband’s Power of Attorney for personal care and property. She continued to care for her husband at home. When Mr. Y turned 75 years old, he was having increased difficulty remembering where things were in the house. He often woke his wife at odd hours of the night thinking it was time to get up and ready. When Mrs. Y reoriented her husband that it was still night-time, he would get confused and easily upset.
Mr. Y was also becoming more physically weak, but did not perceive his limitations. He was having frequent falls at home. A few times, Mr. Y had become lost outside of their home, forgetting where he had to go and which house was his.
Their son recognized that his mother was not as happy as she used to be. She was constantly worrying about her husband’s increasing care needs, and could not enjoy activities she used to do. She was stressed and was not sleeping properly. With support from their health-care providers, the family decided that a long-term care setting would benefit Mr. Y and Mrs. Y’s well-being.
Admission to long-term care
At the admission conference, the long-term care home’s social worker and charge nurse met Mr. Y and his family, and learned more about his history and preferences. His medical diagnosis includes moderate Alzheimer’s disease and osteoarthritis, with a history of urinary tract infections. Mr. Y hears well, uses reading glasses, and wears upper and lower dentures. Mr. Y also requires reminders to use his walker properly.
Mrs. Y always prompted her husband for toileting, as well as when to eat and take medications. Mr. Y requires limited assistance from his wife during activities of daily living, such as dressing or transfers. As for his preferences, Mr. Y loves homemade
Korean food, pastries, and warm drinks. He had always enjoyed baths in the evenings. At the end of the second week in LTC, Mr. Y was no longer pacing the halls. He was often found napping in his room during the days. One afternoon, a nurse went into Mr.
Y’s room and found him sleeping. She tried to gently wake Mr. Y, but he was not easy to arouse. She tried a second time and asked very loudly, “Mr. Y, it’s lunch time, are you ready to go?” Mr. Y slowly opened his eyes. The nurse repeated her question, and Mr. Y replied slowly, “Oh, I ate last week.” The nurse then asked, “I know you had breakfast this morning, now it’s lunch time.
Are you hungry?” Mr. Y paused and closed his eyes. The nurse gently woke him again by rubbing his arm and repeated her question. Mr. Y slowly replied, “Yes, my wife is cooking, I will eat”. Together, they walked slowly to the dining room.
In the dining room, Mr. Y stared out the window and did not answer the CNAs when they asked him for his lunch preference. When approached a third time, Mr. Y rambled slowly in English and in Korean to the CNAs. He continued to speak Korean to the CNAs as they tried to assist him with his lunch, but he was unfocused and inattentive. He was unable to finish his meal because of his behavior. The staff were worried that he was not eating or drinking enough since admission.
When there were group activities, the therapists found it harder to encourage Mr. Y to attend and participate like he had been doing before. It took a lot of encouragement and assistance to have him attend. During the activity, he did not participate or sometimes fell asleep in the middle of the exercise or social program.
A few nights in a row, he was found wandering outside his bedroom without his walker. One time, he told the nurse, “Someone is looking for me.” The nurse reassured him that he was safe, and tried to direct him back to his room. But Mr. Y walked past the nurse and said, “I have to go to the bus stop.” After a few attempts, the nurse was able to direct Mr. Y to his room to sleep, and reoriented him to the use of the call bell. This behavior continued with increasing disorientation.
The sleep disturbances resulted in Mr. Y being too drowsy in the mornings, and not able to eat any breakfast. Although Mrs. Y was kept informed of her husband’s condition since admission to long-term care, it was not until her first visit during Mr. Y’s third week in long-term care when she realized how much her husband had changed. She was alarmed and asked the staff, “What is happening? What will be done for him? How can I help?”
Week 2: Psychosocial Disorders
In so many countries, to be old is shameful; to be mentally ill as well as old is doubly shameful. In so many countries, people with elderly relatives who are also mentally ill are ashamed and try to hide what they see as a disgrace on the family.
—Dr. Nori Graham, Psychiatrist and Honorary Vice President of Alzheimer’s Disease International
In this quote, Dr. Graham is expressing her observations and experiences in her work with numerous international organizations. Many patients and their families experience feelings of anxiety and shame upon receiving a diagnosis of dementia, delirium, or depression. Among caregivers, 36% report having tried to hide the dementia diagnosis of their family member (Alzheimer’s Disease International, 2019).
As an advanced practice nurse providing care to patients presenting with dementia, delirium, and depression, it is critically important to consider the impact of these disorders on patients, caregivers, and their families. A thorough understanding of the health implications of these disorders, as well as each patient’s personal concerns, will aid you in making effective treatment and management decisions.
This week, you explore geriatric patient presentations of dementia, delirium, and depression. You also examine assessment, diagnosis, and treatment for these disorders and complete a SOAP (subjective, objective, assessment, and plan) note.
- Alzheimer’s Disease International. (2019). World Alzheimer report 2019: Attitudes to dementia. Author. https://www.alz.co.uk/research/world-report-2019
- Evaluate patients presenting with symptoms of dementia, delirium, or depression
- Develop differential diagnoses for patients with psychosocial disorders
- Develop appropriate treatment plans, including diagnostics and laboratory orders, for patients with psychosocial disorders
Assignment: Assessing, Diagnosing, And Treating Dementia, Delirium, And Depression
With the prevalence of dementia, delirium, and depression in the growing geriatric population, you will likely care for elderly patients with these disorders. While many symptoms of dementia, delirium, and depression are similar, it is important that you are able to identify those that are different and properly diagnose patients. A diagnosis of one of these disorders is often difficult for patients and their families. In your role as an advanced practice nurse, you must help patients and their families manage the disorder by facilitating necessary treatments, assessments, and follow-up care.
- Review the case study provided by your Instructor. Reflect on the way the patient presented in the case, including whether the patient might be presenting with dementia, delirium, or depression.
- Reflect on the patient’s symptoms and aspects of disorders that may be present. What distinct symptoms or factors would lead you to a diagnosis of dementia, delirium, or depression?
- Consider how you might assess, perform diagnostic tests, and recommend medications to treat patients presenting with the symptoms in the case.
- Access the Focused SOAP Note Template in this week’s Resources.
- Complete the Focused SOAP Note Template provided for the patient in the case study.
Be sure to address the following:
Subjective: What was the patient’s subjective complaint? What details did the patient provide regarding their history of present illness and personal and medical history?
Include a list of prescription and over-the-counter drugs the patient is currently taking. Compare this list to the American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria®, and consider alternative drugs if appropriate. Provide a review of systems.
Objective: What observations did you note from the physical assessment? What were the lab, imaging, or functional assessments results? How would you interpret and address the results of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)?
Assessment: Provide a minimum of three differential diagnoses. List them from top priority to least priority. Compare the diagnostic criteria for each, and explain what rules each differential in or out. Explain your critical thinking process that led you to the primary diagnosis you selected. Include pertinent positives and pertinent negatives for the specific patient case.
Plan: Provide a detailed treatment plan for the patient that addresses each diagnosis, as applicable. Include documentation of diagnostic studies that will be obtained, referrals to other healthcare providers, therapeutic interventions, education, disposition of the patient, caregiver support, and any planned follow-up visits. Provide a discussion of health promotion and disease prevention for the patient, taking into consideration patient factors, past medical history (PMH), and other risk factors. Finally, include a reflection statement on the case that describes insights or lessons learned.
Provide at least three evidence-based peer-reviewed journal articles or evidenced-based guidelines, which relate to this case to support your diagnostics and differentials diagnosis. Be sure they are current (no more than 5 years old) and support the treatment plan in following current standards of care. Follow APA 7th edition formatting.
Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/57.htm). All papers submitted must use this formatting.