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NUR 641E Topic 4: Respiratory System And HEENT: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

NUR 641E Topic 4: Respiratory System And HEENT: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

NUR 641E Topic 4: Respiratory System And HEENT: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

Mar 24-30, 2022

Max Points:30

Objectives:

  1. Describe normal pathophysiology and alterations in the pulmonary system and HEENT.
  2. Integrate knowledge of pathophysiology and pharmacology into teaching and educational materials in diverse settings.
  3. Describe a pharmacological intervention using an evidence-based treatment guideline.
Topic 4 DQ 1

Mar 24-26, 2022

Choose a medical condition from the respiratory system or HEENT system and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Make sure that you select a different medical condition than your peers. Include the name of the medical condition in the subject line so that the medical condition can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

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Vanessa

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Replies to Vanessa Brown

Acute otitis media

Children and adults can get acute otitis media, a middle ear infection that can cause ear pain, fever, agitation, an irritated tympanic membrane, and fluid in the middle ear (McCance & Huether, 2018). It is the most prevalent infection in children and newborns, as well as the most common trigger for doctor visits and medications worldwide (McCance & Huether, 2018). Acute otitis media is primarily brought on by bacterial pathogens, although it can also be brought on by respiratory viruses and certain risk factors. The pathophysiology changes that can be seen include erythema to the tympanic membrane that progresses to opaqueness, and is accompanied by membrane bulging caused by accumulating fluid (McCance & Huether, 2018).

Patient education that should be provided would be to seek medical attention for a definitive diagnosis and follow-up because treatment could include antimicrobial therapy, especially in children under the age of two (McCance & Huether, 2018). The other symptoms of pain and fever should be medicated accordingly for the patient’s comfort, as per physician order. Breastfeeding is a protective factor, and the widespread use of bacterial and viral vaccines in young children has accompanied a reduction of incidence of otitis media (McCance & Huether, 2018). Ongoing infections with certain types could possibly lead to conductive hearing loss (where there is interference in air conduction), eardrum perforation, or spread of infection (McCance & Huether, 2018). Placement of tympanostomy tubes in the ears would be a way to prevent permanent damage if the infections are reoccurring. This is why prevention of otitis media is key. Some additional things to help prevent acute otitis media would be to avoid cigarette smoke, control allergies, prevent colds, and bottle feed babies at an upright angle.

References

McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2018). Pathophysiology – e-book: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). Mosby. https://bibliu.com/app/#/view/books/9780323413206/epub/OPS/xhtml/chp00007.html

Topic 4 DQ 2

Mar 24-28, 2022

Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

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Nicole

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Replies to Nicole Santos

AUGMENTIN

Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium are both components of the antibiotic combination augmentin. In addition, clavulanate, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, helps prevent bacteria from developing resistance to amoxicillin by sharing structural similarities with penicillin and inhibiting the potential of beta-lactamase enzymes. Amoxicillin is a penicillin antibiotic that aids in the fight against bacteria in the body by binding to proteins in the bacterial cell wall and preventing the synthesis of the cell wall.

Some common side effects of augmentin include nausea vomiting, diarrhea, rash, itching, vaginal itching or discharge, or diaper rash. It is recommended to notify your physician if you have severe stomach pain, watery or bloody diarrhea, loss of appetite, little to no urination, or easy bruising or bleeding.

Augmentin is contraindicated in patients with severe kidney disease, allergy to penicillin or cephalosporin antibiotics, breast feeding, or taking birth control. It is also advised to voice taking augmentin with a high-fat meal, as it makes it difficult for the body to absorb medications.

References

Evans J, Hannoodee M, Wittler M. Amoxicillin Clavulanate. [Updated 2021 Dec 15]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538164/

Topic 5: Cardiovascular System And Lymphatic System: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

Mar 31-Apr 6, 2022

Max Points:130

Objectives:

  1. Describe normal pathophysiology and alterations in the cardiovascular system and lymphatic system.
  2. Integrate knowledge of pathophysiology and pharmacology into teaching and educational materials in diverse settings.
  3. Describe a pharmacological intervention using an evidence-based treatment guideline.
Topic 5 DQ 1

Mar 31-Apr 2, 2022

Choose a medical condition from the cardiovascular system and lymphatic system and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Make sure that you select a different medical condition than your peers. Include the name of the medical condition in the subject line so that the medical condition can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

NS

Nicole Santos

Posted Date

Apr 4, 2022, 12:44 PM

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Replies to Nicole Santos

ORTHOSTATIC (POSTURAL) HYPOTENSION

Orthostatic hypotension, or postural hypotension, refers to a decrease of 20 mmHg in systolic blood pressure, and a decrease of 10 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure within a period of 3 minutes when moving from a supine, to sitting, to standing position. Primary orthostatic hypotension is typically called neurogenic hypotension, which is a result of a neurologic disorder that affects the autonomic system. This increases sympathetic activity through baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch which prompts the increase in heart rate and constriction of systemic arteries that maintain stable blood pressure, which is not the case in individuals with orthostatic hypotension.

This disease is more common in older adults due to the slowing of postural reflexes as part of normal aging and other neurologic diseases like Parkinson and multiple system atrophy. Some patient education related to this order would be to change positions slowly to reduce light headedness and falls, drinking plenty of water, avoid crossing legs while sitting, and elevating the head of the bed.

Reference

McCance, K. L., Huether, S. E., Brashers, V. L., Rote, N. S., & McCance, K. L. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children

REPLY

  • LH
Topic 5 DQ 2

Mar 31-Apr 4, 2022

Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

VB

Vanessa Brown

Posted Date

Apr 5, 2022, 10:25 PM(edited)

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Replies to Vanessa Brown

Ketoprofen

Traditionally, lymphedema would be treated with compression garments, lymphatic massage, or surgical procedures. The treatment for lymphedema has not really included medication therapy, but there have been trials that have shown promising results with the NSAID ketoprofen (Rockson et al., 2018). The mechanism of action for ketoprofen is that of dual inflammatory inhibition pathways that blocks both cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-LO (Rockson et al., 2018). The inhibition of 5-LO then negatively effects leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production. The intended results from the use of ketoprofen was to reduce swelling,relieve pain, and improve the skin thickening that accompanies lymphedema. When taking this medication, monitoring of blood work will be needed with extended use to evaluate for toxicity, especially in high-risk patients (Drugs.com, n.d.). Monitoring for other dangerous adverse effects from ketoprofen should also be done. These include severe allergic reaction, possible heart attack or stroke, or gastrointestinal bleeding (Drugs.com, n.d.). Some of the common side effects of this NSAID are heartburn, gas, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and dizziness (Drugs.com, n.d.). Some possible drug interactions are easier bruising and bleeding with certain antidepressants, increased effect of anticoagulants, and GI issues with steroid medications (Drugs.com, n.d.).

References

Drugs.com. (n.d.). Ketoprofenhttps://www.drugs.com/mtm/ketoprofen.html

Rockson, S. G., Tian, W., Jiang, X., Kuznetsova, T., Haddad, F., Zampell, J., Mehrara, B., Sampson, J. P., Roche, L., Kim, J., & Nicolls, M. R. (2018). Pilot studies demonstrate the potential benefits of anti-inflammatory therapy in human lymphedema. JCI Insight3(20). https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.123775

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