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NUR 641E Topic 6 Discussions and Assignment

NUR 641E Topic 6 Discussions and Assignment

NUR 641E Topic 6 Discussions and Assignment

NUR 641E Topic 6: Gastrointestinal And Genitourinary Systems: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

Apr 7-13, 2022

Max Points:206

Objectives:

  1. Describe normal pathophysiology and alterations of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems.
  2. Integrate knowledge of pathophysiology and pharmacology into teaching and educational materials in diverse settings.
  3. Describe a pharmacological intervention using an evidence-based treatment guideline.

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NUR 641E Topic 6 Discussions and Assignment – Topic 6 DQ 1

Apr 7-9, 2022

Choose a medical condition from the gastrointestinal or genitourinary systems and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Make sure that you select a different medical condition than your peers. Include the name of the medical condition in the subject line so that the medical condition can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

VB

Vanessa

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Replies to Vanessa Brown

Diverticulitis

Diverticulitis is the inflammation or infection of diverticula that are most commonly found in the lower part of the large intestine (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). Diverticula are small pouches that can form within the areas of weakened lining of the digestive tract, most commonly in the colon (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). Diverticulitis occurs when there is a tear in a diverticula, and the inflammation or infection cause severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and a change in bowel habits (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). The treatments can include bowel rest, lifestyle changes (including diet), and antibiotics. In some extreme and/or recurring cases of diverticulitis, surgery is necessary. Some of the risk factors for developing diverticulitis are age, lack of exercise, obesity, smoking, diet high in fat and low in fiber, and certain medications (NSAIDs, steroids, opioids).

References

Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Diverticulitis. Mayoclinic.org. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diverticulitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20371758

REPLY

  • LH
Topic 6 DQ 2

Apr 7-11, 2022

Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

VB

Vanessa

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Replies to Vanessa Brown

Metronidazole

Metronidazole (Flagyl) is a part of the antibiotic treatment that can be used with treating diverticulitis. It can be given orally or intravenously for this purpose. The mechanism of action of metronidazole is that it “diffuses into the organism, inhibits protein synthesis by interacting with DNA and causing a loss of helical DNA structure and strand breakage. Therefore, it causes cell death in susceptible organisms” (Weir & Le, 2021). While a patient is taking this medication for an extended period of time, labs such as a CBC w/differential should be monitored for changes (especially elderly or those with renal/hepatic issues), observe for new onset of neurological symptoms, severe or bloody diarrhea (possible C. Diff infection), and monitor for other possible adverse effects (Weir & Le, 2021). Some side effects that may occur are nausea, vomiting, metallic taste in the mouth, dry mouth, diarrhea, or headache. Some drug interactions that need to be discussed are the use of alcohol or alcohol containing medications, lithium, glucocorticoids, and warfarin. The alcohol will cause a serious disulfiram-like reaction, lithium excretion by the kidneys would be compromised, oxidative metabolism of the metronidazole is caused by the glucocorticoids, and the metabolism of warfarin is inhibited with metronidazole (Weir & Le, 2021).

References

Weir, C., & Le, J. (2021). Metronidazole. NCBI. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539728/

NUR 641E Topic 6 Discussions and Assignment — Topic 6 CLC – Staff Training 

Points

176

Rubric

View Rubric

Status

Published

Assessment Traits

Group

Requires Lopeswrite

Assessment Description

This is a Collaborative Learning Community (CLC) assignment.

This assignment requires completion of two parts: a presentation and an educational resource.

Part 1: Presentation

Create a PowerPoint presentation (15-20 slides, with speaker notes) for a staff training meeting on the pathophysiology and pharmacologic agents for a select disease process.

Each CLC will choose one disease process from the following list and obtain instructor approval to avoid duplication:

  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Asthma
  • Diabetes Type 2
  • Epilepsy
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  • Hypertension
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Peptic Ulcer Disease
  • Tuberculosis

Describe the physiology and pathophysiology of the disease, clinical manifestations, and evaluation (e.g., labs, imaging).

Describe the pharmacologic treatment of the disease, including pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug interactions, side effects, adverse reactions, and application of the nursing process in monitoring the drug therapy.

Part 2: Educational Resource

Using your selected disease process from Part 1, develop an educational resource that can assist staff in increasing patient knowledge of medications and medication compliance.

The vehicle for your educational resource could include pamphlets, handouts, or any other brief, concise medium to convey the information to staff.

General Requirements

Refer to the resource, “Creating Effective PowerPoint Presentations,” located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on completing this assignment in the appropriate style.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.

Topic 7 DQ 1

Apr 14-16, 2022

Choose a medical condition from the neurological, musculoskeletal, or integumentary system and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Make sure that you select a different medical condition than your peers. Include the name of the medical condition in the subject line so that the medical condition can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

NS

Nicole Santos

Posted Date

Apr 18, 2022, 9:26 PM

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Replies to Nicole Santos

Alopecia Areata

Alopecia areata is an autoimmune condition where the body attacks its hair follicles, causing hair loss anywhere on the body. The hair loss typically occurs in circular patches that may overlap. It is important to educate the patient on the root cause of their diagnosis and their treatment options available to them. It is also important to educate proper diet of 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight and discontinuing medications that may affect hair growth. You can also offer support and counseling to help with coping with hair loss. Suggesting various styling techniques and hair colors can also help in reducing the appearance of thinning hair volume and assist with coping.

References

Hair loss types: Alopecia areata overview. American Academy of Dermatology. (2022). Retrieved April 18, 2022, from https://www.aad.org/public/diseases/hair-loss/types/alopecia

Mims. (n.d.). Alopecia patient education. MIMS Malaysia. Retrieved April 18, 2022, from https://specialty.mims.com/alopecia/patient%20education

REPLY

  • LH
Topic 7 DQ 2

Apr 14-18, 2022

Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

NS

Nicole Santos

Posted Date

Apr 18, 2022, 9:47 PM

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Replies to Nicole Santos

Minoxidil

Minoxidil, or more commonly known as Rogaine, is a well known treatment for alopecia areata. Minoxidil helps increase blood supply and nutrients to the hair follicles, helping to strengthen existing hair follicles and promoting hair growth. Some common side effects of minoxidil are irritation, eczema, abnormal hair growth on the body, redness at application site, burning, worsening hair loss. It is cautioned that one minoxidil is used, it should be used indefinitely, with apparent hair growth within a minimum of four months; avoid contact with scalp once it is applied as it can easily be rubbed off; may experience change in hair color; avoid in patients with heart issues; avoid contact with eyes.

Reference

Goren, A., Naccarato, T., Situm, M., Kovacevic, M., Lotti, T., & McCoy, J. (2017). Mechanism of action of minoxidil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia is likely mediated by mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase-induced stem cell differentiation. Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents31(4), 1049–1053.

Cristina Alimon

Posted Date

Apr 18, 2022, 9:16 PM

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Replies to Nicole Santos

Levodopa (L-Dopa)

Levodopa is a dopamine precursor; it is beneficial for controlling bradykinetic symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and improving the quality of life in people with idiopathic PD (Gandhi KR, 2021). Levodopa may halt the course of Parkinson’s disease or provide further advantages long after the medicine is stopped.

Mechanism of Action

Levodopa is converted to dopamine in both the CNS and the periphery. Inhibitors of dopamine decarboxylase prevent Levodopa from being converted to dopamine in the periphery, allowing more Levodopa to penetrate the Blood-Brain Barrier (Gandhi KR, 2021). Once converted to dopamine, it acts on postsynaptic dopaminergic receptors, compensating for the loss of endogenous dopamine.

Hints for monitoring

Individuals using Levodopa must regularly monitor their BUN, creatinine, and hepatic function (Gandhi KR, 2021). A healthy liver is critical for people on Levodopa since it is the site of decarboxylation. When a person has glaucoma, it is also essential to check their intraocular pressure to ensure it is safe. Before and while taking Levodopa, it is also vital to check for peripheral neuropathy to see if it will worsen. Patients should also have their dyskinesia checked regularly. Therefore, it is crucial to watch patients who take dopaminergic medications for psychotic behavior and hallucinations. Hallucinations can happen when people are confused or have many dreams.

Side effects

Taking Levodopa’s most common side effects are nausea, dizziness, headache, and sleepiness. Typical side effects for older people who take Levodopa are confusion, hallucinations, delusions, psychosis, and agitation.

Drug interactions

Levodopa is contraindicated when monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are used concurrently, as this might result in a hypertensive crisis (Gandhi KR, 2021). However, when transitioning from Levodopa to an MAOI or vice versa, a 14-day washout period should be observed. Patients using D2 antagonists may decrease the effects of Levodopa, which may lessen the drug’s positive benefits (Gandhi KR, 2021).

Reference:

Gandhi KR, S. A. (2021, April 30). Levodopa (L-dopa) – StatPearls – NCBI bookshelf. National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482140/

Topic 8 DQ 1

Apr 21-23, 2022

Choose a medical condition from the endocrine system and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Make sure that you select a different medical condition than your peers. Include the name of the medical condition in the subject line so that the medical condition can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

NS

Nicole Santos

Posted Date

Apr 25, 2022, 3:26 PM

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Replies to Nicole Santos

GOITER

Goiter is an abnormal growth of the thyroid gland located at the base of the neck. This may present as an enlargement of the thyroid or irregular cell growth that may cause lumps or nodules in the thyroid. Goiter may be a result of change in thyroid hormones or no change at all. Some common causes of goiter is lack of iodine intake from an inidivuduals diet.  Depending on the cause of goiter, an individual may exhibit symptoms of hyperthyroidsim or hyperthyroidism. In obstructive goiter, signs and symptoms include difficulties swallowing, labored breathing, hoarseness, cough, and snoring. Treatment of goiter varies on the cause, treating the symptoms and complications. It is important to educate patients with goiter on the cause of their goiter; adequate iodine intake; annual physical exams and neck exams; annual blood work. For patients on medical treatment for goiter, it is important to reinforce the importance of taking prescribed medications as ordered. NUR 641E Topic 6 Discussions and Assignment

Reference

Can AS, Rehman A. Goiter. [Updated 2021 Aug 30]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK562161/

Topic 8 DQ 2

Apr 21-25, 2022

Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

CA

Cristina Alimon

Posted Date

Apr 25, 2022, 7:18 PM

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Replies to Cristina Alimon

Propylthiouracil (PTU)

Propylthiouracil is used to treat hyperthyroidism (abnormal thyroid activity), Graves’ disease, and toxic goiter (enlarged thyroid). It is also occasionally used to relieve symptoms prior to thyroid surgery or radioactive iodine therapy.

Mechanism of action

Propylthiouracil suppresses thyroid hormone synthesis. It works by blocking thyroid peroxidase, which normally converts iodide to iodine and integrates it into tyrosine (Amisha & Rehman, 2021). The primary components of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) are not formed (T3). It inhibits T4 to T3 conversion peripherally. It affects thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland or in the blood.

Hints of monitoring

Thyroid function tests should be monitored while on PTU treatment. Patients using warfarin must also have their prothrombin time monitored. PTU treatment includes patient education and counseling. The patient should be advised: Notify your doctor if you become pregnant or plan to become pregnant while taking the medicine. Report any fever, drug eruptions, or infection to your doctor. Notify your doctor if you have nausea, right upper quadrant discomfort, or jaundice. Agranulocytosis symptoms include sore throat, fever, chills, gum or skin infections (Amisha & Rehman, 2021). Severe hypotension is another symptom.

Side effects

Symptoms of an allergic response (hives, difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat) (fever, sore throat, burning eyes, skin pain, red or purple skin rash with blistering and peeling). Propylthiouracil harms the liver (especially during the first 6 months of treatment). If you suffer nausea, vomiting, upper stomach discomfort, itching, fever, fatigue, lack of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored feces, or jaundice, stop taking propylthiouracil and notify your doctor (yellowing of the skin or eyes).

Drug Interactions

Digoxin (digitalis); theophylline; heart or blood pressure medicine; or a blood thinner—warfarin, Coumadin, Jantoven—all have drug interactions with Propylthiouracil.

References

Amisha, F., & Rehman, A. (2021, July 11). Propylthiouracil (PTU) – StatPearls – NCBI bookshelf. National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK549828/

Cerner Multum. (2021, June 11). Propylthiouracil. Drugs.com. https://www.drugs.com/mtm/propylthiouracil.html

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