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NUR641E Topic 5: Cardiovascular System And Lymphatic System: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

NUR641E Topic 5: Cardiovascular System And Lymphatic System: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

NUR641E Topic 5: Cardiovascular System And Lymphatic System: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

Mar 31-Apr 6, 2022

Max Points:130

Objectives:

  1. Describe normal pathophysiology and alterations in the cardiovascular system and lymphatic system.
  2. Integrate knowledge of pathophysiology and pharmacology into teaching and educational materials in diverse settings.
  3. Describe a pharmacological intervention using an evidence-based treatment guideline.

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Topic 5 DQ 1

Mar 31-Apr 2, 2022

Choose a medical condition from the cardiovascular system and lymphatic system and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Make sure that you select a different medical condition than your peers. Include the name of the medical condition in the subject line so that the medical condition can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

NS

Nicole

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Replies to Nicole Santos

ORTHOSTATIC (POSTURAL) HYPOTENSION

Orthostatic hypotension, or postural hypotension, refers to a decrease of 20 mmHg in systolic blood pressure, and a decrease of 10 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure within a period of 3 minutes when moving from a supine, to sitting, to standing position. Primary orthostatic hypotension is typically called neurogenic hypotension, which is a result of a neurologic disorder that affects the autonomic system. This increases sympathetic activity through baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch which prompts the increase in heart rate and constriction of systemic arteries that maintain stable blood pressure, which is not the case in individuals with orthostatic hypotension.

This disease is more common in older adults due to the slowing of postural reflexes as part of normal aging and other neurologic diseases like Parkinson and multiple system atrophy. Some patient education related to this order would be to change positions slowly to reduce light headedness and falls, drinking plenty of water, avoid crossing legs while sitting, and elevating the head of the bed.

Reference

McCance, K. L., Huether, S. E., Brashers, V. L., Rote, N. S., & McCance, K. L. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children

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Topic 5 DQ 2

Mar 31-Apr 4, 2022

Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

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VB

Vanessa

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Replies to Vanessa Brown

Ketoprofen

Traditionally, lymphedema would be treated with compression garments, lymphatic massage, or surgical procedures. The treatment for lymphedema has not really included medication therapy, but there have been trials that have shown promising results with the NSAID ketoprofen (Rockson et al., 2018). The mechanism of action for ketoprofen is that of dual inflammatory inhibition pathways that blocks both cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-LO (Rockson et al., 2018). The inhibition of 5-LO then negatively effects leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production. The intended results from the use of ketoprofen was to reduce swelling,relieve pain, and improve the skin thickening that accompanies lymphedema. When taking this medication, monitoring of blood work will be needed with extended use to evaluate for toxicity, especially in high-risk patients (Drugs.com, n.d.). Monitoring for other dangerous adverse effects from ketoprofen should also be done. These include severe allergic reaction, possible heart attack or stroke, or gastrointestinal bleeding (Drugs.com, n.d.). Some of the common side effects of this NSAID are heartburn, gas, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and dizziness (Drugs.com, n.d.). Some possible drug interactions are easier bruising and bleeding with certain antidepressants, increased effect of anticoagulants, and GI issues with steroid medications (Drugs.com, n.d.).

References

Drugs.com. (n.d.). Ketoprofen. https://www.drugs.com/mtm/ketoprofen.html

Rockson, S. G., Tian, W., Jiang, X., Kuznetsova, T., Haddad, F., Zampell, J., Mehrara, B., Sampson, J. P., Roche, L., Kim, J., & Nicolls, M. R. (2018). Pilot studies demonstrate the potential benefits of anti-inflammatory therapy in human lymphedema. JCI Insight, 3(20). https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.123775

NUR641E Topic 5: Cardiovascular System And Lymphatic System: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy — Topic 6 CLC – Staff Training

GO TO GROUP

Start Date

Apr 7, 2022, 12:00 AM

Due Date

Apr 13, 2022, 11:59 PM

Points

176

Rubric

View Rubric

Status

Published

Assessment Traits

Group

Requires Lopeswrite

Assessment Description

This is a Collaborative Learning Community (CLC) assignment.

This assignment requires completion of two parts: a presentation and an educational resource.

Part 1: Presentation

Create a PowerPoint presentation (15-20 slides, with speaker notes) for a staff training meeting on the pathophysiology and pharmacologic agents for a select disease process.

Each CLC will choose one disease process from the following list and obtain instructor approval to avoid duplication:

  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Asthma
  • Diabetes Type 2
  • Epilepsy
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
  • Hypertension
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Peptic Ulcer Disease
  • Tuberculosis

Describe the physiology and pathophysiology of the disease, clinical manifestations, and evaluation (e.g., labs, imaging).

Describe the pharmacologic treatment of the disease, including pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug interactions, side effects, adverse reactions, and application of the nursing process in monitoring the drug therapy.

Part 2: Educational Resource

Using your selected disease process from Part 1, develop an educational resource that can assist staff in increasing patient knowledge of medications and medication compliance.

The vehicle for your educational resource could include pamphlets, handouts, or any other brief, concise medium to convey the information to staff.

General Requirements

Refer to the resource, “Creating Effective PowerPoint Presentations,” located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on completing this assignment in the appropriate style.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.

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Topic 6: Gastrointestinal And Genitourinary Systems: Selected Pathophysiology And Pharmacologic Therapy

Apr 7-13, 2022

Max Points:206

Objectives:

  1. Describe normal pathophysiology and alterations of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems.
  2. Integrate knowledge of pathophysiology and pharmacology into teaching and educational materials in diverse settings.
  3. Describe a pharmacological intervention using an evidence-based treatment guideline.

Topic 6 DQ 1

Apr 7-9, 2022

Choose a medical condition from the gastrointestinal or genitourinary systems and explain the pathophysiology changes that may occur. What patient education would need to be included related to this disorder? Make sure that you select a different medical condition than your peers. Include the name of the medical condition in the subject line so that the medical condition can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

VB

Vanessa Brown

Posted Date

Apr 10, 2022, 10:16 PM(edited)

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Replies to Vanessa Brown

Diverticulitis

Diverticulitis is the inflammation or infection of diverticula that are most commonly found in the lower part of the large intestine (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). Diverticula are small pouches that can form within the areas of weakened lining of the digestive tract, most commonly in the colon (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). Diverticulitis occurs when there is a tear in a diverticula, and the inflammation or infection cause severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and a change in bowel habits (Mayo Clinic, n.d.). The treatments can include bowel rest, lifestyle changes (including diet), and antibiotics. In some extreme and/or recurring cases of diverticulitis, surgery is necessary. Some of the risk factors for developing diverticulitis are age, lack of exercise, obesity, smoking, diet high in fat and low in fiber, and certain medications (NSAIDs, steroids, opioids).

References

Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Diverticulitis. Mayoclinic.org. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diverticulitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20371758

REPLY

  • LH

Topic 6 DQ 2

Apr 7-11, 2022

Select a medication used in evidence-based treatment guidelines for the condition chosen in the first discussion question. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions of which one should be aware. Make sure that you select a different medication than your peers. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include your references in APA style.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

VB

Vanessa Brown

Posted Date

Apr 11, 2022, 11:13 PM

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Replies to Vanessa Brown

Metronidazole

Metronidazole (Flagyl) is a part of the antibiotic treatment that can be used with treating diverticulitis. It can be given orally or intravenously for this purpose. The mechanism of action of metronidazole is that it “diffuses into the organism, inhibits protein synthesis by interacting with DNA and causing a loss of helical DNA structure and strand breakage. Therefore, it causes cell death in susceptible organisms” (Weir & Le, 2021). While a patient is taking this medication for an extended period of time, labs such as a CBC w/differential should be monitored for changes (especially elderly or those with renal/hepatic issues), observe for new onset of neurological symptoms, severe or bloody diarrhea (possible C. Diff infection), and monitor for other possible adverse effects (Weir & Le, 2021). Some side effects that may occur are nausea, vomiting, metallic taste in the mouth, dry mouth, diarrhea, or headache. Some drug interactions that need to be discussed are the use of alcohol or alcohol containing medications, lithium, glucocorticoids, and warfarin. The alcohol will cause a serious disulfiram-like reaction, lithium excretion by the kidneys would be compromised, oxidative metabolism of the metronidazole is caused by the glucocorticoids, and the metabolism of warfarin is inhibited with metronidazole (Weir & Le, 2021).

References

Weir, C., & Le, J. (2021). Metronidazole. NCBIhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539728/

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