NURSING 420 Psychosocial Development in Adolescence


● How do adolescents form an identity, and what roles do gender and ethnicity play?

● What determines sexual orientation, what sexual practices are common among adolescents, and what leads some to engage in risky sexual behavior?

● How do adolescents relate to parents, siblings, and peers?

 ● What are the root causes of antisocial behavior and juvenile delinquency, and what can be done to reduce these risks of adolescence?

1. Identity includes

A. a coherent conception of the self.

 B. a set of goals to which one is solidly committed.

 C. values and beliefs a person holds dear.

D. All of these Answer: D Page: 390

Guidepost: 1 Type: Knowledge

2. According to Erikson, adolescents are in the crisis of

A. autonomy versus shame and doubt.

B. industry versus inferiority.

C. identity versus identity confusion.

D. intimacy versus isolation.


3. The desirable outcome of the crisis of adolescence, according to Erikson, is being able to

A. complete a task.

B. love, marry, and start a family.

 C. get along with others.

 D. see oneself as a unique person with a meaningful role in life.


4. Diane is 13 years old and is pondering her own talents, interests, and needs, as well as her place in society. According to Erikson, this struggle represents the crisis of

A. autonomy versus shame and doubt.

 B. industry versus inferiority.

 C. identity versus identity confusion.

 D. intimacy versus isolation.


 5. According to Erikson, cliquishness and intolerance of differences in adolescence are

 A. personality problems.

 B. defenses against identity confusion.

 C. a form of adolescent rebellion.

D. due to adolescent egocentrism.


 6. Erikson holds that adolescence provides a psychosocial moratorium, or “time out” period, which

A. allows adolescents to regress into childishness.

 B. allows adolescents time to search for commitment.

 C. often adds identity confusion.

 D. can precipitate an identity crisis.


 7. According to Erikson’s theory, the virtue that arises from resolution of the identity crisis in adolescence is

A. fidelity.

 B. hope.

 C. love.

D. trust.


 8. Betty is 18 years old. For the past five years she has been very committed to working with a group of her friends as a volunteer at a local hospital. She has also diligently studied the piano during this time. According to Erikson, Betty is developing the virtue of

A. achievement.

B. identity.

C. foreclosure.

D. fidelity.


 9. As a child, it is important to learn to trust one’s parents; in adolescence a person learns fidelity, which is often defined as

A. loyalty to friends.

B. an extension of trust that includes the self, family, and mentors and friends.

C. The ability to guard other people’s secrets.

D. the desire to find a partner to share one’s private thoughts with.


10. James Marcia identifies four identity status or statuses, according to the presence or absence of

A. crisis and commitment.

B. foreclosure and moratorium.

C. crisis and foreclosure.

D. moratorium and commitment.


 Essay Questions

 93. Discuss and identity development of adolescents. What are the critical issues for this age group as they struggle with identity formation?

94. Describe the issues that ethnic and cultural factors raise as adolescents try to develop a personal identity.

95. Interactions with parents, siblings, and peers are often renegotiated during the

adolescent years. An adolescent’s need for more freedom, for more control of his/her own destiny, and his/her search to find others that are having the same experiences changes the way they spend their discretionary time. Explain the kind of parenting style that works best as adolescents try to find more autonomy in their lives.

96. Describe the roles that siblings and peers play during the adolescent developmental period.

97. Define sexual orientation and explain the interaction of biological and environmental factors that contribute to sexual orientation.

98. Describe the risky sexual behavior engaged in by adolescents. Be sure to address the issues of sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancy.