PSY525 Counseling Systems And Techniques

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

Tim comes to the counselor because he is afraid of life. He does not trust others and therefore has difficulty establishing satisfying relationships. H is Person Centered therapist, Carl, would hope that, as a result of counseling, Tim could:

  1. learn assertiveness skills.
  2. be more in touch with his experience.
  3. use fewer defense mechanisms.
  4. confront his parents about conditions of worth they instilled.

Patty, the Person Centered counselor, tells her client Jose that she is feeling uncomfortable with the way he interacts with her. She is demonstrating:

  1. congruence.
  2. misjudgment.
  3. countertransference.
  4. anxiety.

Person Centered therapy has been criticized because:

  1. It is too positive about human beings.
  2. The techniques are difficult to learn.
  3. It is individualistic.
  4. a and c

The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapy, according to Person Centered theorists, include all EXCEPT:

  1. The client and counselor are equals.
  2. A counselor is the expert, guiding the client on a journey to healing.
  3. The counselor strives to understand the client’s experience.
  4. all of the above are necessary and sufficient conditions.

Achieving good health is a process, not a:

  1. destination.
  2. impossible outcome.
  3. fluke.
  4. dream.

In a Person Centered model, growth of the individual depends upon:

  1. creating conditions of worth.
  2. accurate perceptions of others.
  3. accurate perceptions of experience.
  4. eliminating destructive tendencies.

Little Stella has a friend, Shelly, who tends to punch on Stella when they play together. Lately, Stella has been crying when she sees Shelly and tries to crawl away from her. Stella is demonstrating the operation of the:

  1. self-actualization tendency.
  2. core conditions.
  3. conditions of worth.
  4. organismic valuing process.

If you were an ET theorist and your client was “being in the physical world”, what is the correct term for that state of being?

  1. Umwelt
  2. Mitwelt
  3. Eigenwelt
  4. Bigwelt

If you were an ET theorist and your client was “in the inner psychological world”, what is the correct term for that state of being?

  1. Umwelt
  2. Mitwelt
  3. Eigenwelt
  4. Bigwelt

In Existential theory, the ultimate concern is:

  1. bankruptcy.
  2. being unloved.
  3. death.
  4. a and c

This type of anxiety is destructive, paralyzing and tends to be repressed:

  1. Normal
  2. Existential
  3. Neurotic
  4. Psychotic

When a client is experiencing guilt about possibilities unfulfilled, this is called

  1. Catholic guilt.
  2. existential guilt.
  3. Umwelt guilt.
  4. normal guiIt.

An ET counselor is more interested in the client’s __ experience than his/her __ .

  1. present; past
  2. present; future
  3. past; present
  4. future; present

A major characteristic of the therapeutic atmosphere of Gestalt therapy is to:

  1. focus solely on events of the past and disregard the experience of the here and now.
  2. focus solely on the experience of the here and now and disregard what has happened in the past.
  3. examine what has happened in the past as it is experienced in the here and now of therapy.
  4. prevent the client from gaining awareness of how past events influence how he or she interacts in the here and now.

Please answer questions 15 – 16 based on the following paragraph:

Desi is a 35 year-old Hispanic male who moved to the U.S. from Mexico approximately 4 years ago. Desi is married to Julie, a 32 year-old Caucasian female, who is an assistant professor in the counseling psychology program of a well-known university. Desi and Julie have 3 children and the couple decided after their first child was born that Desi would care for the children due to Julie’s full-time teaching and research activities. Desi was referred to counseling by his primary care physician due to Desi’s complaint of panic attacks, nightmares, and shortness of breath. His therapist (Pat) is a practicing Gestalt therapist.

Pat will MOST likely assess Desi to determine:

  1. the most accurate DSM-IV diagnosis.
  2. whether his presenting symptoms of anxiety are due to his history of asthma.
  3. the career that would be most appropriate for him to pursue.
  4. Desi’s current level of awareness.

As Desi’s therapy progresses, Pat will:

  1. encourage Desi to actively explore key aspects of his sense of identity.
  2. actively explore key aspects of his sense of identity using projective methods.
  3. gather evidence to support his perception of Desi’s sense of identity without disclosing his findings to Desi.
  4. disclose aspects of his own sense of identity with the hope that Desi will assimilate them.

Which of the following characteristics of Gestalt therapy contributes to its usefulness with clients from diverse populations?

  1. focus on expressiveness
  2. focus on understanding the person in the environment and exploration of the client’s awareness
  3. the focus on self-disclosure
  4. the lack of importance of content

This concept refers to a complete loss of self in which the individual cannot separate himself/ herself from the environment:

  1. retroflection
  2. introjection
  3. confluence
  4. projection

This defense occurs when a client’s impulse is blunted or dampened (i.e. a person smiles to soften the expression of his/her anger):

  1. deflection
  2. denial
  3. avoidance
  4. acting out

The problem with theory testing research in the area of behavioral approaches is


  1. it is difficult to test the theory separate from the outcome.
  2. behavioral constructs are hard to operationalize.
  3. behavior therapists are bad researchers.
  4. all of the above are true

Which one of the following is NOT associated with Behavior Therapy?

  1. Skinner
  2. Adler
  3. Watson
  4. Pavlov

James is awakened at night by the barking dog (Hans) who lives next door. James opens his window and yells at the dog, to no avail. James next throws one of his best shoes at the dog, who immediately stops barking and busily chews on the shoe. James’ shoe-throwing behavior has been:

  1. positively reinforced.
  2. counterconditioning.
  3. negatively reinforced.
  4. James’ behavior will not change.

In the previous question, the dog’s behavior has been:

  1. counter conditioned.
  2. positively reinforced.
  3. negatively reinforced.
  4. punished.

Susan wants her boyfriend to kiss her more often. Unfortunately, boyfriend Dan does not approach Susan physically very much. Susan begins to smile and say nice things to Dan every time he comes within six inches of her. Pretty soon, Dan is so close that he touches Susan. She smiles and says very nice things to him. Susan continues to reward Dan’s behavior when he touches her and finally one day he kisses her. She jumps for joy. What technique is she using?

  1. shaping
  2. negative reinforcement
  3. positive punishment
  4. none of the above

Dave has a shoe phobia. It is so bad that he can’t go to work because he works construction and his boss will not allow him to come to work barefoot. Dave consults with Phil, the behavior therapist. Phil discovers that when Dave was young, his dad would beat Dave with his wingtip shoes when he did something wrong. For Dave, shoes are:

  1. the conditioned response.
  2. the conditioned stimulus.
  3. the unconditioned stimulus.
  4. the unconditioned response.