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Week 1 Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics – NURS 6521
Week 1 Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics – NURS 6521
As an advanced practice nurse assisting physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders, it is important to not only understand the impact of disorders on the body, but also the impact of drug treatments on the body. The relationships between drugs and the body can be described by pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacokinetics describes what the body does to the drug through absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, whereas pharmacodynamics describes what the drug does to the body. When selecting drugs and determining dosages for patients, it is essential to consider individual patient factors that might impact the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharamcodynamic processes. These patient factors include genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, behavior (i.e., diet, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, illicit drug abuse), and/or pathophysiological changes due to disease. In this Discussion, you reflect on a case from your past clinical experiences and consider how a particular patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes altered his or her response to a drug.
Review this week’s media presentation with Dr. Terry Buttaro, as well as Chapter 2 of the Arcangelo and Peterson text, and the Scott article in the Learning Resources. Consider the principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
Reflect on your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practices from the last five years. Select a case from the last five years that involves a patient whose individual differences in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors altered his or her anticipated response to a drug. When referring to your patient, make sure to use a pseudonym or other false form of identification. This is to ensure the privacy and protection of the patient.
Consider factors that might have influenced the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes such as genetics (including pharmacogenetics), gender, ethnicity, age, behavior, and/or possible pathophysiological changes due to disease.
Think about a personalized plan of care based on these influencing factors and patient history in your case study.
With these thoughts in mind:
By Day 3
Post a description of the case you selected. Then, describe factors that might have influenced pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of the patient from the case you selected. Finally, explain details of the personalized plan of care that you would develop based on influencing factors and patient history in your case.
By Day 6
Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days by suggesting additional patient factors that might have interfered with the pharmacokinetic and pharmadynamic processes of the patients in their case studies. In addition, suggest how the personal care plan might change if the age of the patient were different and if the patient had a comorbid condition such as renal failure, heart failure, or liver failure. Week 1 Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics – NURS 6521
Readings for Week 1 Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics – NURS 6521
- Arcangelo, V. P., & Peterson, A. M. (Eds.). (2013). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (3rd ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
- Chapter 2, “Pharmacokinetic Basis of Therapeutics and Pharmacodynamic Principles” (pp. 15–29)This chapter examines concepts related to pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. It also explores patient factors that health care providers consider when prescribing drug therapy to patients.
- Chapter 3, “Impact of Drug Interactions and Adverse Events on Therapeutics” (pp. 30–48)This chapter explains drug-drug, drug-food, drug-herb, and drug-disease interactions. It also reviews patient factors that influence drug interactions and then covers adverse drug reactions.
- Chapter 4, “Principles of Pharmacotherapy in Pediatrics” (pp. 49–59)This chapter explores concepts relating to drug selection, administration, and interaction for pediatric patients. It also compares age-related pharmacokinetic differences in children and adults.
- Chapter 6, “Principles of Pharmacotherapy in Elderly Patients” (pp. 66–78)This chapter describes issues and factors that affect drug therapy for elderly patients. It then explores concepts relating to drug selection, administration, and management for elderly patients.
- Hilmer, S. N., McLachlan, A. J., & Le Couteur, D. G. (2007). Clinical pharmacology in the geriatric patient. Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology, 21(3), 217–230.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.This article explores issues that health care providers consider when prescribing drug treatment to geriatric patients. It also examines the role of polypharmacy in adverse drug reactions and the importance of managing patient response to drug treatment.
- Scott, S. A. (2011). Personalizing medicine with clinical pharmacogenetics. Genetics in Medicine,13(12), 987–995.
- Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3290900/This article examines pharmacogenetic testing in relation to personalized drug therapy plans and explores evidence-based guidelines and recommendations on pharmacogenetic testing.
- Drugs.com. (2012). Retrieved August 22, 2012, from http://www.drugs.com/This website presents a comprehensive review of prescription and over-the-counter drugs including information on common uses and potential side effects. It also provides updates relating to new drugs on the market, support from health professionals, and a drug-drug interactions checker.
- Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012). Introduction to advanced pharmacology. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Week 1 Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics – NURS 6521
NURS 6521 Week 1: Basic Pharmacotherapeutic Concepts
In 2011, more than 3.7 billion drug prescriptions were filled at pharmacies in the United States (The Kaiser Family Foundation, 2011). With billions of drugs prescribed each year for the treatment and management of various disorders, it is essential for advanced practice nurses to familiarize themselves with common drug treatments and effects of these treatments on patients. When prescribing drugs, ensuring patient safety is the major concern. In many clinical settings, nurses work more closely with patients than any other health care provider, making it their responsibility to assist physicians with this task. As an advanced practice nurse maintaining patient safety, you must consider the many patient factors that impact pharmacotherapeutics.
This week you explore factors that influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in patients. You also examine patient factors that advanced practice nurses must consider when developing drug therapy plans. Week 1 Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics – NURS 6521
By the end of this week, students will:
- Analyze factors that influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics processes in patients
- Assess patient factors and history to develop personalized plans of care
- Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to pharmacotherapeutics
- Understand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to prescribing drugs to treat geriatric patients
NURS 6521 Week 1 Quiz Answers (Walden)
- A nurse is caring for a patient who has recently moved from Vermont to south Florida. The patient has been on the same antihypertensive drug for 6 years and has had stable blood pressures and no adverse effects. Since her move, however, she reports “dizzy spells and weakness” and feels that the drug is no longer effective. The nurse suspects that the change in the effectiveness of the drug is related to
- A mother brings her 4-year-old child, who is vomiting and has a temperature of 103°F into the emergency department (ED). The ED physician orders acetaminophen (Tylenol) for the fever. The best form of Tylenol to give the child, considering her presentation, would be
- A nurse who is responsible for administering medications should understand that the goals of the MedWatch program are to (Select all that apply.)
- Which of the following affects drug distribution throughout the body?
- In response to a patient’s nausea, the nurse has mixed a dose of an antiemetic with 50 mL of sterile normal saline and will administer the dose by IV piggyback. What is the rationale for the use of IV piggyback?
- A patient with a variety of chronic health problems is being seen by her nurse practitioner, who is currently reviewing the patient’s medication regimen. Which of the patient’s medications should prompt the nurse to teach her to avoid drinking grapefruit juice?
- During a clinic visit, a patient complains of having frequent muscle cramps in her legs. The nurse’s assessment reveals that the patient has been taking over-the-counter laxatives for the past 7 years. The nurse informed the patient that prolonged use of laxatives
- Tylenol 325 mg/tablet, patient needs 650 mg; how many tables should patient take?
- The nurse is caring for a patient receiving an aminoglycoside (antibiotic) that can be nephrotoxic. Which of the following will alert the nurse that the patient may be experiencing nephrotoxicity?
- An elderly postsurgical patient has developed postoperative pneumonia in the days following abdominal surgery and is being treated with a number of medications. Which of the following medications that the nurse will administer has the slowest absorption?
- A home health nurse notes that there have been changes to a patient’s oral drug regimen. The nurse will closely monitor the new drug regimen to
- A 60-year-old African-American man lives with a number of chronic health problems. Genetic factors are likely to influence his etiology and/or treatment of
- A nurse is discussing with a patient the efficacy of a drug that his physician has suggested, and he begin taking. Efficacy of a drug means which of the following?
- A patient has been prescribed an oral drug that is known to have a high first-pass effect. Which of the following measures has the potential to increase the amount of the free drug that is available to body cells?
- Talwin given in combination with Vistaril diminishes the adverse effects of nausea caused by the Talwin. This drug interaction affecting the pharmacodynamics of the Talwin is
- A patient who has been admitted to the hospital for a mastectomy has stated that she has experienced adverse drug effects at various times during her life. Which of the following strategies should the nurse prioritize in order to minimize the potential of adverse drug effects during the patient’s stay in the hospital?
- The culture and sensitivity testing of a patient’s wound exudate indicates that a specific antibiotic is necessary for treatment. The United States Pharmacopeia–National Formulary indicates that the drug in question is 96% protein bound. What are the implications of this fact?
- A patient who has ongoing pain issues has been prescribed meperidine (Demerol) IM. How should the nurse best administer this medication? Week 1 Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics – NURS 6521
- On the 1 a.m. rounds, the nurse finds a patient awake and frustrated that she cannot go to sleep. The nurse administers an ordered hypnotic to help the patient sleep. Two hours later, the nurse finds the patient out of bed, full of energy and cleaning her room. The nurse evaluates the patient’s response to the hypnotic as
- A patient with a recent diagnosis of acute renal failure has a long-standing seizure disorder which has been successfully controlled for several years with antiseizure medications. The nurse should recognize that the patient’s compromised renal function will likely
- For which of the following patients would a nasogastric tube most likely be considered to aid in the administration of medications?
- A patient has been receiving regular doses of an agonist for 2 weeks. Which of the following should the nurse anticipate?
- In which of the following patients would a nurse expect to experience alterations in drug metabolism?
- Mr. Lacuna is an 83-year-old resident of a long-term care facility who has a diagnosis of moderate Alzheimer disease. Mr. Lacuna’s physician recently prescribed oral rivastigmine, but he was unable to tolerate the drug due to its gastrointestinal effects. As a result, he has been ordered the transdermal patch form of the medication. When administering this form of rivastigmine, the nurse should
- A nurse who provides care for older adults is aware of the high incidence of drug interactions in this population. When educating a group of seniors about the prevention of drug interactions, the nurse should encourage them to
- A 70-year-old woman with a history of atrial fibrillation has been admitted with a lower gastrointestinal bleed. During the nurse’s admission assessment, the nurse realizes that the patient has been taking ginkgo biloba supplements in addition to her prescribed warfarin, a combination that has resulted in bleeding. What nursing diagnosis should the nurse identify when planning this patient’s care?
- A 72-year-old man who is unable to sleep since admission into the hospital is given a hypnotic medication at 9 p.m. The nurse finds the patient drowsy and confused at 10 a.m. the next day. The nurse is aware that this behavior is most likely due to
- A nurse is caring for a 73-year-old man who is receiving drug therapy. He is beginning to exhibit signs of decline in his renal system, yet his current serum creatinine level is normal. The nurse will base the patient’s plan of care on the understanding that there is
- An elderly patient with a history of congestive heart failure has been admitted to hospital with failure to thrive and admission blood work reveals a hemoglobin level of 6.9 g/dL. The care team has consequently administered two units of packed red blood cells, but auscultation of the client’s lungs now reveals diffuse crackles. Administration of what drug is likely to resolve the patient’s pulmonary edema?
- A nurse is administering drugs to a 70-year-old patient who has a reduced plasma albumin level. When assessing the patient for therapeutic outcomes of drug therapy, the nurse will also be careful to observe for
- An 80-year-old man has been prescribed oxycodone for severe, noncancer, chronic pain. He tells the nurse that he has difficulty swallowing and asks if he can crush the tablet before swallowing. The nurse will advise the patient that
- An 80-year-old patient has been taking lorazepam since his wife died a year ago. He has been staying with his son, but will now move to an assisted living facility. Before admission to the assisted living facility, the patient’s physician has determined that the drug is no longer needed. The nurse at the facility will plan to
- A nurse is conducting an assessment of a patient who has recently had several changes made to her drug regimen. What assessment question most directly addresses the safety implications of the patient’s drug regimen?
- A nurse notes new drug orders for a patient who is already getting several medications. Which of the following is the most important consideration when preparing to administer the new drugs?
- A 70-year-old woman has experienced peripheral edema and decreasing stamina in recent months and has sought care from her primary care provider. The patient’s subsequent diagnostic workup has resulted in a diagnosis of chronic heart failure. The woman has been prescribed digoxin and the nurse has begun patient education. What should the nurse teach the patient about her new medication?
- A 77-year-old woman who is 5 feet 3 inches tall and weighs 89 lbs has been admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of failure to thrive. What action should the nurse prioritize when addressing the woman’s apparent lack of nutrition?
- A 70-year-old patient has just started taking lorazepam 10 days ago for anxiety issues related the death of her husband. She is staying with her daughter for a couple of weeks. The patient’s daughter has noticed that her mother is having difficulty walking and seems to be confused at times and calls the clinic to report this to the nurse. The nurse will inform the daughter that
- A nurse is teaching an older adult patient about polypharmacy. Which of the following statements best describe this term? Week 1 Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics – NURS 6521
Assignment: Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs
What type of drug should you prescribe based on your patient’s diagnosis? How much of the drug should the patient receive? How often should the drug be administered? When should the drug not be prescribed? Are there individual patient factors that could create complications when taking the drug? Should you be prescribing drugs to this patient? How might different state regulations affect the prescribing of this drug to this patient?
These are some of the questions you might consider when selecting a treatment plan for a patient.
Photo Credit: Getty Images/Caiaimage
As an advanced practice nurse prescribing drugs, you are held accountable for people’s lives every day. Patients and their families will often place trust in you because of your position. With this trust comes power and responsibility, as well as an ethical and legal obligation to “do no harm.” It is important that you are aware of current professional, legal, and ethical standards for advanced practice nurses with prescriptive authority. Additionally, it is important to ensure that the treatment plans and administration/prescribing of drugs is in accordance with the regulations of the state in which you practice. Understanding how these regulations may affect the prescribing of certain drugs in different states may have a significant impact on your patient’s treatment plan. In this Assignment, you explore ethical and legal implications of scenarios and consider how to appropriately respond.
- Review the Resources for this module and consider the legal and ethical implications of prescribing prescription drugs, disclosure, and nondisclosure.
- Review the scenario assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment.
- Search specific laws and standards for prescribing prescription drugs and for addressing medication errors for your state or region, and reflect on these as you review the scenario assigned by your Instructor.
- Consider the ethical and legal implications of the scenario for all stakeholders involved, such as the prescriber, pharmacist, patient, and patient’s family.
- Think about two strategies that you, as an advanced practice nurse, would use to guide your ethically and legally responsible decision-making in this scenario, including whether you would disclose any medication errors.
By Day 7 of Week 1
Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:
- Explain the ethical and legal implications of the scenario you selected on all stakeholders involved, such as the prescriber, pharmacist, patient, and patient’s family.
- Describe strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure as identified in the scenario you selected. Be sure to reference laws specific to your state.
- Explain two strategies that you, as an advanced practice nurse, would use to guide your decision making in this scenario, including whether you would disclose your error. Be sure to justify your explanation.
- Explain the process of writing prescriptions, including strategies to minimize medication errors.
Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The College of Nursing Writing Template with Instructions provided at the Walden Writing Center offers an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates/general#s-lg-box-20293632). All papers submitted must use this formatting.
Submission and Grading Information
To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:
- Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
- Click the Week 1 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
- Click the Week 1 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
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- If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
- Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.
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