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Week 5: Endocrine System Disorders and the Treatment of Diabetes

Week 5: Endocrine System Disorders and the Treatment of Diabetes

Week 5: Endocrine System Disorders and the Treatment of Diabetes

The endocrine system includes eight major glands throughout the body which affect such things as growth and development, metabolism, sexual function, and mood (National Institutes of Health). Some of the most commonly diagnosed endocrine disorders include hypothyroidism, diabetes, and Hashimoto’s disease. Not surprisingly, treating any one endocrine disorder may have effects on other body systems or their functions. As an advanced practice nurse, treating patients who may suffer from endocrine disorders requires an acute understanding of the structure and function of the endocrine system. Additionally, a solid understanding of patient factors and behaviors will assist in developing the best drug therapy plans possible to treat your patients. Some of most commonly diagnosed endocrine disorders include

This week, you differentiate the types of diabetes and examine the impact of diabetes drugs on patients. You also evaluate alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for diabetes management.

Reference: National Institutes of Health. (n. d.). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders. Endocrine diseases. Retrieved July 3, 2019 from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Differentiate types of diabetes
  • Evaluate the impact of diabetes drugs on patients
  • Evaluate alternative drug treatments and patient education strategies for diabetes management

Learning Resources

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

  • Chapter 48, “Drugs for Diabetes Mellitus” (pp. 397–415)
  • Chapter 49, “Drugs for Thyroid Disorders” (pp. 416–424)

American Diabetes Association. (2018). Pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care, 41(Supplement 1), S73–S85. Retrieved from http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/41/supplement_1/s73.full-text.pdf

This article provides guidance on pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment as it pertains to treating patients with diabetes. Reflect on the content of this article as you continue to examine potential drug treatments for patients with diabetes.

Document: Mid-Term Summary & Study Guide (PDF)

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Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 5 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 of Week 5 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 5

To Participate in this Discussion:

Week 5 Discussion

Concepts Of Endocrine Disorders Assignment

Endocrine disorders are complex matters, and there is not always a one-size-fits-all treatment. Particularly in matters requiring the adjustment of hormone levels, treatment may require a custom approach tailored to individual patients. An understanding of these complications is essential to supporting these individual treatment plans. Week 5: Endocrine System Disorders and the Treatment of Diabetes

Examine alterations in the endocrine system and the resultant disease processes. You also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, and the impact they have on altered physiology

A 77-year-old female was brought to the clinic by her daughter who stated that her mother had become slightly confused over the past several days. She had been stumbling at home and had fallen twice but was able to walk with some difficulty. She had no other obvious problems and had been eating and drinking. The daughter became concerned when she forgot her daughter’s name, so she thought she better bring her to the clinic.

HPI: Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) with peripheral neuropathy x 30 years. Emphysema. Situational depression after death of spouse 6-months ago

SHFH: – non contributary except for 40 pack/year history tobacco use.

Meds: Metformin 1000 mg po BID, ASA 81 mg po qam, escitalopram (Lexapro) 5 mg po q am started 2 months ago

Labs-CBC WNL; Chem 7- Glucose-102 mg/dl, BUN 16 mg/dl, Creatinine 1.1 mg/dl, Na+116 mmol/L,

K+4.2 mmol/L, CO237 m mol/L, Cl-97 mmol/L.

The APRN refers the patient to the ED and called endocrinology for a consult for diagnosis and management of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH).

Question:

1. Define SIADH and identify any patient characteristics that may have contributed to the development of SIADH

QUESTION 2

1. Scenario 2: Type 1 Diabetes

A 14-year-old girl is brought to the pediatrician’s office by his parents who are concerned about their daughter’s weight loss despite eating more, frequent urination, unquenchable thirst, and fatigue that is interfering with her school activities. She had been seemingly healthy until about 4 months ago when her parents started noticing these symptoms. She admits to sleeping more and gets tired very easily.

PMH: noncontributory.

Allergies-NKDA

FH:- maternal uncle with “some kind of sugar diabetes problem” but parents unclear on the exact disease processConcepts Of Endocrine Disorders Assignment 6

SH: denies alcohol, tobacco or illicit drug use. Not sexually active.

Labs: random glucose 244 mg/dl.

DIAGNOSIS: Diabetes Mellitus type 1 and refers to an endocrinologist for further work up and management plan.

Question

1. Explain the pathophysiology of the three P’s for (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia)” with the given diagnosis of Type I DM.

QUESTION 3

1. Scenario 2: Type 1 Diabetes

A 14-year-old girl is brought to the pediatrician’s office by his parents who are concerned about their daughter’s weight loss despite eating more, frequent urination, unquenchable thirst, and fatigue that is interfering with her school activities. She had been seemingly healthy until about 4 months ago when her parents started noticing these symptoms. She admits to sleeping more and gets tired very easily.

PMH: noncontributory.

Allergies-NKDA

FH:- maternal uncle with “some kind of sugar diabetes problem” but parents unclear on the exact disease process

SH: denies alcohol, tobacco or illicit drug use. Not sexually active.

Labs: random glucose 244 mg/dl.

DIAGNOSIS: Diabetes Mellitus type 1 and refers to an endocrinologist for further work up and management plan.

Question

1. Explain the genetics relationship and how this and the environment can contribute to Type I DM.

QUESTION 4

1. Scenario 3: Type II DM

A 55-year-old male presents with complaints of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and weight loss. He also noted that his feet on the bottom are feeling “strange” “like ants crawling on them” and noted his vision is blurry sometimes. He has increased an increased appetite, but still losing weight. He also complains of “swelling” and enlargement of his abdomen.

PMH: HTN – well controlled with medications. He has mixed hyperlipidemia, and central abdominal obesity. Physical exam unremarkable except for decreased filament test both feet. Random glucose in office 333 mg/dl.

Diagnosis: Type II DM and prescribes oral medication to control the glucose level and also referred the patient to a dietician for dietary teaching.

Question:

1. How would you describe the pathophysiology of Type II DM?

QUESTION 5

1. Scenario 4: Hypothyroidism

A patient walked into your clinic today with the following complaints: Weight gain (15 pounds), however has a decreased appetite with extreme fatigue, cold intolerance, dry skin, hair loss, and falls asleep watching television. The patient also tearfulness with depression, and with an unknown cause and has noted she is more forgetful. She does have blurry vision.

PMH: Non-contributory.

Vitals: Temp 96.4˚F, pulse 58 and regular, BP 106/92, 12 respirations. Dull facial expression with coarse facial features. Periorbital puffiness noted.

Diagnosis: hypothyroidism.

Question:

What causes hypothyroidism?

READING RESOURCES

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

· Chapter 21: Mechanisms of Hormonal Regulation, including Summary Review

· Chapter 22: Alterations of Hormonal Regulation, including Summary Review

· Chapter 23: Obesity and Disorders of Nutrition, including Summary Review

American Diabetes Association (2020). Standards of medical care of patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 26(suppl 1), pp. s33-s50. https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/26/suppl_1/s33

Orlander, P. R. (2018). Hypothyroidism. Retrieved from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/122393-overview Concepts Of Endocrine Disorders Assignment 6

Hoorn, E. J., & Zietse, R. (2017). Diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia: Compilation of the guidelines. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 28(5), 1340–1349

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