Introduction to Writing a Rhetorical Analysis Essay

This article aims to simplify the entire process, simplify the complexity, and help you learn how to write a compelling rhetorical analysis essay.

The field of nursing extends far beyond mere medical procedures and patient care. Communicating effectively is one of the most important aspects of being a successful nurse. This isn’t only limited to conversations with patients and their families but also includes many discussions with other healthcare professionals, including doctors, therapists, and hospital administrators.

Communication becomes even more crucial when dealing with health policy, advocacy, and public health education. One fundamental aspect of effective communication is understanding rhetoric, the art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing.

Rhetoric is omnipresent in nursing, from bedside manner and patient instructions to research papers and policy proposals. Given its significance, having the skills to analyze rhetorical strategies becomes an essential part of nursing education. This is where the skill of writing a rhetorical analysis essay comes into play.

In a nursing context, a rhetorical analysis essay might require you to examine a nursing research article, a public health advertisement, or a health policy proposal, among others. Your task will be to dissect the author’s rhetorical strategies—how they use ethos (credibility), pathos (emotion), and logos (logic) to persuade their audience.

Writing a rhetorical analysis essay allows nursing students to understand better how arguments are structured and how persuasion works within their field. It aids in sharpening critical thinking skills, improving communication ability, and fostering a deeper understanding of professional and ethical standards in nursing.

In this guide, we will take you through the entire process of writing a compelling rhetorical analysis essay.

What is a Rhetorical Analysis?

Understanding the art of persuasion is key to effective communication. Whether delivering a speech, writing an article, or arguing a point, presenting your ideas can make all the difference. That’s where rhetorical analysis comes in.

A rhetorical analysis is a critique or criticism examining how an author communicates a message to a specific audience. It’s about digging deeper into the text’s ‘how’ and ‘why’ rather than focusing solely on ‘what’ the author is saying.

A rhetorical analysis goes beyond simply reading and understanding a text. It involves dissecting the author’s strategies and tactics, analyzing their use, and evaluating their effectiveness.

Rhetorical analysis also involves examining the author’s use of rhetorical devices and language style. Rhetorical devices are techniques that an author uses to convey their message more effectively. These include metaphor, simile, repetition, and rhetorical questions. Language style, on the other hand, refers to the author’s choice of words, sentence structure, and overall voice.

How do you write a visual rhetorical analysis?

A visual rhetorical analysis essay involves analyzing an image or a series of images to determine the message and strategies used to convey it. The process is quite similar to a written rhetorical analysis, but the elements you’ll analyze are different. You’ll focus on things like:

  • Color: Consider the use of color in the image. Does the creator use vibrant, bold colors, or are the colors more subdued? What mood or feeling does the color palette evoke?
  • Layout: Look at how the elements in the image are arranged. What stands out first? How do your eyes move across the image?
  • Lighting: Lighting can significantly impact how an image is perceived. Is the image well-lit, or is it shadowy? How does the use of light affect the mood of the image?
  • Composition: Consider the overall arrangement of visual elements in the piece. How do these elements interact, and what effect does this composition create?
  • Text: If there’s any text included in the image, analyze it. What does it add to the image? Does it clarify or obscure the meaning?
  • Symbolism: Symbols can convey complex ideas in a visually compact way. Are there any symbols in the image? If so, what do they represent, and how do they contribute to the overall message?

Now that you understand what to look for let’s discuss how to write a visual rhetorical analysis.

  • Describe the image: Start by providing a detailed description of the image. What does it depict? What are its key features? This gives your reader a clear understanding of what you’re analyzing.
  • Identify the purpose: What is the purpose of the image? Is it to inform, persuade, entertain, or provoke thought? Identifying the purpose will give direction to your analysis.
  • Analyze the components: Break down the image into its components and analyze each one. Discuss how each element contributes to the overall effect and message of the image.
  • Evaluate effectiveness: How well does the image achieve its purpose? Does it effectively use visual elements to convey its message? This is where you assess the image’s effectiveness.
  • Conclude your analysis: Summarize your findings and discuss their implications. What does your analysis reveal about the image? How does it contribute to our understanding of visual communication?

Rhetorical Analysis Essay Prompts

An essay prompt is a statement used to stimulate or provide direction for an essay. When it comes to a rhetorical analysis essay, the prompt usually requires you to analyze a particular text or work. It encourages you to delve into the rhetorical methods employed in the text, the interaction of ethos, pathos, and logos, and how the author leverages these to reach and convince their audience effectively.

Examples of Essay Prompts

Here are some examples of rhetorical analysis essay prompts:

  • Analyze a Public Health Campaign: “Examine the ‘Smoking Kills’ campaign by the World Health Organization. Discuss how the campaign uses ethos, pathos, and logos to persuade its audience. Is the campaign effective in achieving its purpose?”
  • Dissect a Research Article: “Consider the research paper titled ‘Effects of Nurse Staffing on Patient Outcomes: A Meta-analysis.’ How does the author employ rhetorical strategies to establish credibility, appeal to readers’ emotions, and provide logical reasoning? Evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies.”
  • Examine a Health Policy Proposal: “Analyze the proposed ‘Universal Healthcare Coverage’ policy. How does the author use rhetorical strategies to persuade policymakers and the public about its necessity and feasibility? Are these strategies effective?”
  • Review a Nursing Leader’s Speech: “Analyze the keynote speech delivered by the president of the American Nurses Association at their annual convention. Discuss how the speaker uses ethos, pathos, and logos to inspire and mobilize the nursing community.”
  • Evaluate a Patient Information Leaflet: “Evaluate the ‘Managing Diabetes’ leaflet provided by a local hospital. How does the leaflet use rhetorical strategies to educate patients and persuade them to follow the suggested management plan? Are these strategies effective?”

Decoding the Prompt

The first step in responding to a rhetorical analysis essay prompt is understanding what it asks. For instance, it may ask you to analyze an author’s rhetorical strategies to achieve their purpose or how the writer utilizes language to appeal to their audience. Reading the prompt thoroughly and understanding what’s being asked is important.

Key Elements in a Rhetorical Analysis Essay Prompt

Here are some of the elements you might be asked to focus on in a rhetorical analysis essay prompt:

  • Rhetorical Strategies: How does the author use rhetorical strategies like ethos, pathos, and logos to convince their audience?
  • Audience: Who is the author’s intended audience, and how does this influence their approach?
  • Purpose: What is the author’s purpose in writing this text, and how do they achieve it?
  • Context: How does the context in which the text was written influence its meaning?
  • Tone: How does the author’s tone contribute to the effectiveness of their argument?

Responding to the Prompt

Once you’ve understood the requirements of the prompt, your next task is to answer it effectively. This involves reading the text critically, identifying the rhetorical strategies employed, and analyzing their effectiveness. Here’s a general outline of how to structure your response:

  • Introduction: Begin with a brief overview of the text you’re analyzing. Include the author’s name, the text’s title, and a summary of its content. End your rhetorical analysis introduction with your thesis statement, which should succinctly state your main argument or observation about the text.
  • Body Paragraphs: The body of your essay should address each of the points asked for in the prompt. Each paragraph should focus on one aspect of the text, such as its use of ethos, pathos, logos, audience, purpose, etc.
  • Conclusion: Your conclusion should summarize your main points and restate your thesis differently. It should also offer some final insights or implications based on your analysis.

Rhetorical Analysis Strategies

In rhetorical analysis, three persuasive strategies take center stage: ethos, pathos, and logos. Developed by the Greek philosopher Aristotle, these tools help writers craft compelling arguments and help analysts understand how these arguments are constructed. Let’s break down each of these elements further:

Ethos: Establishing Credibility

The term ethos is derived from the Greek word for “character,” and in the context of rhetoric, it refers to the credibility or ethical appeal of the author. Ethos is about establishing trust and authority, making the audience believe that the speaker or writer is reliable, knowledgeable, and worth listening to.

To analyze ethos, you must consider the author’s credibility and reputation.

  • Do they display expertise in the subject matter?
  • Are they respectful and fair in their treatment of opposing viewpoints?
  • Do they cite reliable and trustworthy sources to support their arguments?
  • Do they exhibit a command of language and clarity in their communication?

Ethos is all about convincing the audience that the author is a voice worth listening to, which can significantly influence how persuasive the audience finds the overall argument.

Pathos: Appealing to Emotions

Pathos derives from the Greek word for “suffering” or “experience,” but in rhetoric, it refers to emotional appeal. It’s about stirring up emotions in the audience to make them more receptive to the author’s arguments. These emotions can range from joy, fear, and anger to compassion, hope, and nostalgia.

When analyzing pathos, examine how the author manipulates the audience’s emotional state.

  • How do they use emotive language, personal anecdotes, or vivid imagery to evoke feelings?
  • Does the text incite fear, arouse sympathy, inspire hope, or provoke anger?
  • How do these emotional responses serve the author’s purpose or argument?

Logos: The Logic of the Argument

Logos, coming from the Greek word for “word,” refers to the logical appeal in rhetoric. It’s about using sound reasoning, solid evidence, and clear arguments to convince the audience. In a well-constructed argument, logos ensure that the claims are logically sound and supported by evidence.

Analyzing logos involves scrutinizing the argument’s structure and the evidence supporting it.

  • Is the argument logically sound, or does it rely on fallacies?
  • Does the author use facts, statistics, expert testimony, or concrete examples to back up their claims?
  • How does the author link their evidence to their claims?

Using logos effectively enables the author to construct a clear and persuasive argument that appeals to the audience’s sense of reason.

How to Approach a Rhetorical Analysis Essay

Writing a rhetorical analysis essay involves carefully studying a piece of text, whether written or spoken, to understand the rhetorical strategies employed by the author. A systematic approach will make this task more manageable and effective. Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to approach a rhetorical analysis essay:


In a rhetorical analysis essay, it’s crucial to identify the speaker or the author of the text. This could be a person, an organization, or a fictional character. Understanding who the speaker is can provide insight into their perspective, background, and potential biases, all of which can influence their rhetorical strategies.

For instance, a speech by a political leader will likely use different rhetoric than an article written by a healthcare professional, even if they’re discussing the same topic. The speaker’s role, expertise, and perspective shape their rhetoric, and understanding this is a key part of your analysis.


The occasion or context of the text also plays a significant role in the rhetorical strategies used. This includes the time, place, and situation in which the text was written or spoken. It can also encompass broader societal or cultural factors that might have influenced the text.

For instance, an article about climate change written in the aftermath of a natural disaster will likely have a different tone and urgency than one written during a period of relative calm. Understanding the occasion can give you insight into why certain strategies were used and how effective they might have been.


A fundamental aspect of any rhetorical analysis is understanding the intended audience. The author tailors their rhetorical strategies based on who they’re trying to reach or persuade.

If the text is intended for experts in a field, it might use more technical language and complex arguments. It might use simpler language and more emotional appeals if it’s for the general public. Understanding the audience allows you to evaluate whether the author’s strategies were likely effective.


Every piece of rhetoric has a purpose or goal. This could be to persuade, inform, entertain, or provoke thought. It’s important to identify this purpose because it heavily influences the choice of rhetorical strategies.

For example, if the purpose is to persuade, the author might use more emotional appeals and powerful language. They might use clear, straightforward language and logical arguments if it’s to inform.


Defining the subject of the text is an essential step. Understanding what the author is talking about provides a foundation for analyzing their rhetorical strategies. It also allows you to assess whether their arguments and evidence are relevant and effective.


The author’s tone can greatly influence how the audience perceives their message. It can range from serious to humorous, sarcastic to sincere, indifferent to passionate, etc. Analyzing the tone can give you insights into the author’s attitude towards the subject and the emotional impact they’re trying to achieve.

Rhetorical Essay Outline

Organizing your thoughts and arguments in an outline is an excellent way to start writing your rhetorical analysis essay. Here’s a sample structure:

I. Introduction

A. Background information on the topic

Provide a brief overview of the text, including the author's name, the title, and the context in which it was created. For instance, "In her landmark book, 'Notes on Nursing: What it is and what it is not,' Florence Nightingale explores the essence of nursing."

B. Rhetorical analysis essay thesis statement

Present your thesis statement. This should briefly outline your main argument or insight about the author's use of rhetorical strategies. For example, "Nightingale uses a combination of ethos, pathos, and logos to establish the role of nurses and the nature of nursing effectively."

C. Brief overview of the rhetorical analysis

Outline the rhetorical strategies you'll discuss in the body of your essay. For instance, "This essay will analyze Nightingale's use of ethos in establishing her authority, pathos in drawing readers' emotional engagement, and logos in constructing her arguments about nursing."

II. Ethos

A. Explanation of ethos and its importance

Discuss what ethos is and why it's significant in rhetoric. For example, "Ethos refers to how an author establishes credibility and trustworthiness. It's crucial because it sets the stage for the audience to accept the author's arguments."

B. Examples of ethos in the text

Identify and explain examples of ethos in the text. For instance, "Nightingale leverages her experiences and reputation as a nurse to lend credibility to her ideas."

C. Analysis of the effectiveness of ethos in the speech

Discuss how effectively the author uses ethos to persuade the audience. For instance, "Her established ethos effectively persuades readers to accept her perspective on nursing."

III. Pathos

A. Explanation of pathos and its importance

Explain what pathos is and its role in persuasion.  For instance, "Pathos involves appealing to the audience's emotions. It's effective in engaging the audience and making them more receptive to the author's arguments."

B. Examples of pathos in the text

Highlight and discuss examples of pathos in the text. For instance, "Nightingale uses vivid imagery and emotive language to describe the hardships and sacrifices of nurses."

C. Analysis of the effectiveness of pathos in the speech

Evaluate how effectively the author uses pathos to influence the audience's emotions. For instance, "Her use of pathos evokes sympathy and admiration for nurses, further strengthening her arguments.

IV. Logos

A. Explanation of logos and its importance

Define logos and explain its importance in logical persuasion. For instance, "Logos involves the use of logical arguments and evidence. It's essential in persuading the audience by appealing to their sense of reason."

B. Examples of logos in the text

Identify and explain instances of logos in the text. For instance, "Nightingale presents logical arguments and empirical evidence about the role and responsibilities of nurses."

C. Analysis of the effectiveness of logos in the speech

Discuss how well the author uses logos to present logical arguments. For instance, "Her use of logos provides a solid foundation for her arguments, making her case about nursing compelling and hard to refute."

V. Conclusion

A. Restate thesis statement

Restate your thesis statement in a new way to reinforce your argument.  For instance, "As shown, Nightingale effectively employs ethos, pathos, and logos in her work, providing a persuasive perspective on nursing."

B. Summarize the main points

Summarize the key points you've discussed in your essay. For example, "Through her credibility, emotional appeals, and logical arguments, she provides a compelling portrayal of nursing."

C. Concluding thoughts

Provide your concluding thoughts on the author's use of rhetorical strategies and their effectiveness. For instance, "Nightingale's effective use of rhetorical strategies not only made her work influential in her time but continues to shape our understanding of nursing today."

How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis Essay

Writing a rhetorical analysis involves several steps. These include:

Understanding the Purpose

Before you start your analysis, it’s important to understand the purpose of your task. Are you being asked to analyze a specific rhetorical strategy, or should you evaluate the piece? Be sure you’re clear on what the essay prompt is asking. In addition, consider the audience for your essay. Knowing who will be reading your analysis can guide your tone and approach.

Conducting Research

Your first step in the actual process of writing your essay should be to conduct thorough research. This involves reading the text you’re analyzing and understanding its context. Who is the author? When and where was the text written? What was the social, political, or cultural environment like then? All of these factors can influence the rhetorical strategies the author uses.


Once you’ve done your research, start brainstorming ideas. Take notes on the text and identify the rhetorical strategies you see the author using. Look for examples of ethos, pathos, and logos, and note any other persuasive tactics the author employs.


Next, organize your thoughts and ideas into an outline. A typical rhetorical analysis essay might start with an introduction where you provide some background information about the text and your thesis statement. Then, your body paragraphs might each focus on a different rhetorical strategy, including specific examples from the text and explaining their effectiveness. Finally, your conclusion will summarize your analysis and restate your thesis.

Writing and Style

Once you have your essay outline, start writing. Remember to use a formal, academic tone and to stay focused on your thesis. Each paragraph should have a clear main idea, and you should use transitions to help your essay flow smoothly from one idea to the next.


After you’ve finished writing, take some time to proofread your essay. Look for any grammatical, punctuation, or spelling errors and correct them. Also, check your essay for clarity – are your arguments and ideas presented and easy to understand?

Formatting and Citation

Lastly, make sure your essay is correctly formatted. The format may depend on your assignment instructions or the standard style guide used in your field, such as APA or MLA. Additionally, ensure all your sources are properly cited to avoid plagiarism. Remember, it’s not just direct quotes that need to be cited but also paraphrases and summaries of someone else’s ideas.

Steps to Polish Your Rhetorical Analysis Essay

After drafting your rhetorical analysis essay, the next step is to refine it. Here’s a simple checklist to help you polish your essay:

  • Re-read the Text: Start by going through the text again. This helps ensure you have not missed any crucial points or arguments the author has made.
  • Identify the Author’s Purpose: Highlight the author’s intent. What is their primary aim? Are they trying to persuade, inform, or entertain the audience? Your analysis should revolve around this purpose.
  • Analyze the Rhetorical Situation: Examine the text’s context, the target audience, and how these affect the author’s argument and rhetorical strategies.
  • Identify the Rhetorical Techniques Used: Identify the main rhetorical techniques the author has used. This will typically involve ethos, pathos, and logos. However, the author may use other rhetorical devices such as anaphora, hyperbole, or rhetorical questions.
  • Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Techniques: Discuss how effectively the author uses each rhetorical technique in achieving their purpose. Support your points with evidence from the text.
  • Revise and Edit: Review your essay, revising and editing where necessary. Ensure your arguments are clear, your ideas flow logically, and your essay is free of grammatical errors.
  • Get Feedback: Consider having someone else read your essay. They can provide a fresh perspective and help you spot areas needing improvement.

What Is an Example of a Rhetorical Analysis Essay?

To fully grasp the concept of a rhetorical analysis essay in nursing, let’s consider a hypothetical example.

Imagine you are analyzing a speech by a health policymaker advocating for more resources for mental health services. Your thesis might argue that the speaker effectively uses ethos, pathos, and logos to persuade their audience of the need for increased funding for mental health.

Title: Rhetorical Analysis of “Improving Mental Health: A Call to Action”

I. Introduction

A. Background information on the topic

You might begin by briefly describing the context in which the speech was given: “In a time when mental health issues are on the rise, policy maker Jane Doe gave a compelling speech titled ‘Improving Mental Health: A Call to Action.'”

B. Rhetorical analysis essay thesis statement

Your thesis could look like this: “In her advocacy for increased mental health resources, Doe effectively employs ethos, pathos, and logos, creating a powerful and persuasive appeal.”

C. Brief overview of the rhetorical analysis

A brief overview could read, “This essay will explore how Doe uses her credibility and authority, evokes emotional responses, and leverages data and logical arguments to make her case.”

II. Ethos

A. Explanation of ethos and its importance

You might start this section by explaining, “Ethos, as a rhetorical strategy, involves establishing credibility and trustworthiness. In persuasive speeches, speakers often leverage their ethos to add weight to their arguments.”

B. Examples of ethos in the text

Here, you would analyze how Doe uses ethos, perhaps stating, “Doe establishes her ethos early in the speech by citing her twenty years of experience in health policy and her direct involvement in mental health initiatives.”

C. Analysis of the effectiveness of ethos in the speech

Lastly, discuss the effectiveness of this approach, like so: “By establishing her credentials and showcasing her extensive experience, Doe effectively gains the audience’s trust, setting a solid foundation for her subsequent arguments.”

III. Pathos

A. Explanation of pathos and its importance

Introduce pathos with something like, “Pathos involves appealing to the audience’s emotions to persuade them. An effective emotional appeal can create a strong connection between the speaker and the audience.”

B. Examples of pathos in the text

Here, you could state, “Doe employs pathos by sharing poignant personal stories from individuals who have suffered from mental health issues and benefited from receiving mental health services.”

C. Analysis of the effectiveness of pathos in the speech

Conclude this section with something like, “These personal stories not only humanize the issue of mental health, but they also serve to evoke empathy and urgency among the audience, further strengthening Doe’s argument.”

IV. Logos

A. Explanation of logos and its importance

To introduce logos, you could write, “Logos refers to the use of logical arguments and factual evidence in persuasion. A strong logos appeal provides a solid, rational basis for the speaker’s claims.”

B. Examples of logos in the text

You might write, “Doe appeals to logos by presenting statistics about the increasing rates of mental health issues, the lack of sufficient resources to combat these issues, and the positive outcomes achieved in areas where mental health funding was increased.”

C. Analysis of the effectiveness of logos in the speech

Wrap up this section by stating, “By presenting hard data and logical arguments, Doe provides the audience with concrete reasons to support increased funding for mental health services, thus making a convincing case.”

V. Conclusion

A. Restate thesis statement

“As shown throughout this analysis, Doe effectively employs ethos, pathos, and logos in her persuasive appeal for increased mental health resources.”

B. Summarize the main points

You could summarize, “Through establishing her credibility, appealing to emotions with personal stories, and backing up her claims with data, Doe creates a compelling case.”

C. Concluding thoughts

Finally, your concluding thoughts could read, “Doe’s skillful use of these rhetorical strategies not only underscores the importance of her cause, but it also serves as an excellent example of effective persuasive communication in the field of nursing and health policy.”

9 Mistakes to Avoid Writing a Rhetorical Analysis Essay

While writing a rhetorical analysis essay, avoid these common mistakes:

  • Neglecting the Thesis Statement: The thesis statement is the backbone of your essay. Ensure it’s clear, concise, and presents your main argument or insight about the text.
  • Crafting a Complex Essay: Avoid making your essay overly complex. Keep your arguments clear and straightforward and your writing style simple and precise.
  • Avoid Extreme Views or Opinions: Stay objective. Your task is to analyze the author’s rhetorical strategies, not to express your personal views on the subject matter.
  • Incorrect Formatting: Ensure your essay follows the correct formatting guidelines, including margins, font size, and citation style.
  • Unable to Answer Key Questions: Your essay should address questions such as: What rhetorical strategies does the author use? How effective are these strategies? What is the author’s purpose, and how does their rhetoric serve this purpose?
  • No Transitions Between Paragraphs: Use transitional phrases to ensure your essay flows smoothly from one point to the next.
  • Grammar, Spelling, and Punctuation Errors: Proofread your essay thoroughly to eliminate grammar, spelling, or punctuation errors. Such errors can distract from your analysis and make your essay difficult to read.

Final Thoughts

Writing a rhetorical analysis essay is a complex task that requires a deep understanding of rhetorical strategies and good analytical skills. However, you can create an insightful and compelling essay with careful preparation, attention to detail, and thorough proofreading.

Understanding the art of rhetoric can greatly enhance your capabilities in writing assignments and effective communication as future nurses. As we navigate this process together, remember you’re not alone in this academic journey.

If you find the process challenging, don’t hesitate to seek assistance. Our team of nursing assignment help experts is always ready to guide you, providing insights and academic support that will empower you to excel in writing your analytical essays including case study analysis, rhetorical analysis,literary analysis, and process analysis.

Frequently Asked Questions About Rhetorical Analysis

How do you start a rhetorical analysis essay?

Starting a rhetorical analysis essay requires you to introduce the text you’re analyzing, including its author, title, and context. You should also provide a brief overview of your thesis or main argument regarding the author’s use of rhetorical strategies.

What are the 3 parts of rhetorical analysis?

Rhetorical analysis involves examining three main parts: the rhetorical situation, the rhetorical appeals, and the rhetorical techniques. The rhetorical situation includes the author, audience, purpose, and context. The rhetorical appeals are ethos, pathos, and logos. Rhetorical techniques can include various devices like metaphor, simile, repetition, and rhetorical questions.

What are the 4 steps to making a rhetorical analysis?

A rhetorical analysis generally involves four steps: reading and understanding the text, identifying the rhetorical strategies, analyzing the strategies, and writing the analysis.

How to write a good thesis for a rhetorical analysis essay?

A good thesis for a rhetorical analysis essay should clearly state your main argument or insight about the author’s use of rhetorical strategies. It should be concise, specific, and arguable. For example: “In her speech, the author effectively uses ethos, pathos, and logos to argue for increased funding for mental health services.”

What’s the goal of a rhetorical analysis?

A rhetorical analysis examines how an author uses rhetorical strategies to persuade their audience. This involves identifying strategies, analyzing their effectiveness, and explaining how they contribute to the author’s overall argument or purpose.

What counts as a text for rhetorical analysis?

A text for rhetorical analysis can be any piece of communication that uses rhetorical strategies to persuade an audience. This includes speeches, essays, articles, advertisements, films, art, and social media posts.

What are logos, ethos, and pathos?

Aristotle identifies logos, ethos, and pathos as the three modes of persuasion. Logos appeals to reason and logic, ethos appeals to credibility and character, and pathos appeals to emotions.

What are claims, supports, and warrants?

In argumentation, a claim is a statement that something is true. Support (or evidence) is used to back up this claim. A warrant connects the claim and the support, explaining why the support proves the claim is true.