Robert Rescorlas Classical Conditioning

Question 1: A famous experiment conducted by _____ showed that children are more likely to be _____ if this behavior is modeled for them. Select one:

  1. Watson; nice
  2. Skinner; well-behaved
  3. Bandura; aggressive
  4. Thorndike; afraid

Question 2: A major problem with cramming for an exam is that it overloads the capacity of _____ Select one:

  1. storage.
  2. short-term memory.
  3. long-term memory.
  4. sensory memory.

Question 3: A test is said to be reliable if _____ Select one:

  1. a person’s score on a test is pretty much the same every time he or she takes it.
  2. it contains an adequate sample of the skills it is supposed to measure.
  3. its results agree with a more direct measure of what the test is designed to predict.
  4. it is culture-fair.

Question 4: According to Robert Sternberg, _____ intelligence refers to the ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis, for problem solving. This is the type of intelligence that is measured by intelligence tests and academic achievement tests. Select one:

  1. analytical/componential
  2. creative/experiential
  3. practical/contextual
  4. kinesthetic/spatial

Question 5: Another example of the power of classical conditioning occurs when _____ Select one:

  1. a child is given a treat for finishing chores and increases that behavior.
  2. We learn a skill by watching someone else, which makes our mirror neurons fire.
  3. the neighborhood where we got high makes us crave the drug.
  4. We teach our dog to sit by using rewards.

Question 6: As 3-year-old Angelo eats his bagel, he accidentally breaks it in half. He then says to his mom, “Uh oh, the bagel is gone. I’m going to get another.” Angelo is in the _____ stage of cognitive development. Select one:

  1. formal operations
  2. preoperational
  3. hypothetico-deductive reasoning
  4. sensorimotor

Question 7: As 3-year-old Luca is learning to count to ten, his parents notice he always remembers one, two, three easily and then nine, ten easily. However, he often skips or mixes up the numbers in the middle. This example demonstrates _____ Select one:

  1. the serial position effect.
  2. severe problems in metacognition.
  3. only the primacy effect.
  4. only the recency effect.

8: Benny is throwing rocks at a neighbor’s house. Just as Trisha picks up a rock and is about to throw it, the neighbor comes out and yells at Benny. Trisha quickly decides not to throw the rock. What has she just demonstrated? Select one:

  1. the elicitation effect
  2. the disinhibitory effect
  3. the insight effect
  4. the inhibitory effect

Question 9: Benson, a black lab, had learned to associate two stimuli with getting taken for a walk, his owner getting out his leash, and his owner getting out a belt. Every time his owner picked up his belt, Benson would jump around and get excited. His owner wanted Benson to stop that so he repeatedly took out his belt without taking Benson for a walk, and always took him for a walk when getting out his leash. He was teaching Benson to_____. Select one:

  1. generalize.
  2. extinguish.
  3. discriminate.
  4. learn preferentially.

10: Billy taught two rats how to play basketball for his experimental psychology class. What process did he likely use? Select one:

  1. operant conditioning
  2. shaping
  3. reinforcement
  4. punishment

Question 11: Children and adolescents are often enticed into drug use, drinking and sexual behavior by observing these behaviors amongst their friends and acquaintances. Being influenced to exhibit behaviors that one has previously learned to suppress is called the

_____. Select one:

  1. elicitation effect.
  2. inhibitory effect.
  3. disinhibitory effect.
  4. vicarious impact effect.

12: Declarative memory is to explicit memory as short-term memory is to _____ Select one:

  1. semantic memory.
  2. working memory.
  3. nondeclarative memory.
  4. episodic memory.

Question 13: Dora just gave birth to her first child. She wants her daughter to grow up to be happy, self-reliant, assertive, socially skilled, and responsible. Based on Baumrind’s research, which parenting style should Dora practice from this moment on? Select one:

  1. permissive type
  2. independent type
  3. authoritative type
  4. indulgent type

Question 14: Douglas was shown a painting for a few moments, and then was asked to jot down as many details regarding the painting as he could remember. As he began writing, he was

surprised to learn that although he remembered what the painting was, he had trouble recalling the details and seemed to lose them within a few seconds. Based on this information, the original information was likely stored in his _____ memory. Select one:

  1. sensory
  2. explicit
  3. short-term
  4. latent

Question 15: Dustin is a child who never seems to eat or sleep on a schedule. He is described as an “intense” kid by his parents and is often irritable. Based on this information, what type of temperament does Dustin likely have? Select one:

  1. slow-to-warm-up
  2. easy
  3. insecure
  4. difficult

Question 16: Every time 18-month-old Shayla tried to feed herself, her nanny would tell her to stop and wipe up the mess she had made. Her nanny would then proceed to feed her so the high chair wouldn’t get dirty. Which stage of psychosocial development will Shayla likely unsuccessfully resolve? Select one:

  1. basic trust vs. mistrust
  2. intimacy vs. isolation
  3. generativity vs. stagnation
  4. autonomy vs. shame and doubt

Question 17: Gabriel is a 16-month-old boy who lives with his mom and grandma. He calls his mom “Mama” and his grandma “Nona.” Last week, Gabriel was at the grocery store with his mom and saw a little lady with white hair and glasses that looked similar to his grandma. He immediately called her “Nona.” Gabriel demonstrated _____ Select one:

  1. an underextension error.
  2. a misuse of telegraphic speech.
  3. an overextension error.
  4. a phonemic error.

Question 18: Gertrude is a nervous child. She tends to withdraw from other children and family members. However, if given enough time, Gertrude slowly adapts to new situations, people, and environments. Based on this information, what type of temperament does Gertrude likely have? Select one:

  1. slow-to-warm-up
  2. easy
  3. insecure
  4. difficult

Question 19: Giuseppe cannot remember exactly what happened at the wedding he attended a while ago, but he knows that the reception followed the ceremony. He also knows that at the reception, there was a large guest list, great food, and lots of dancing. Giuseppe is using _____ to help him reconstruct his memory for the event. Select one:

  1. relearning
  2. recognition
  3. metacognition
  4. a schema

Question 20: In order for behavior modification to work, the behavior must be _____ and _____ Select one:

  1. aversive; changeable.
  2. reinforceable; conditionable.
  3. observable; measurable.
  4. subjective; qualitative.